Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Background of the Research
In the era of the modern world, people are going behind modern technology. Therefore, every industry uses modern technologies that have enabled them to extend their services among the people. In that case, along with the adaptation of the modern world, several industries are using next-generation technologies. Regarding this matter, the aviation industry, retail industry, and health industry have used the modern system of UAV. Through the UAV, industries are capable of accelerating the functional system along a more scientific and modern path.
The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is the FAA-led overhaul of America’s air transportation system. NextGen is usually defined as a transition from a ground-based air traffic controller to a satellite-based air transport industry. It is not a singular technology, product, or objective. Rather than that, it includes a variety of technology, regulations, and processes, with modifications made after extensive safety checks.
The majority of people see a drone, sometimes called an unmanned air vehicle (UAV), as a smart technological tool or an enthusiast’s tool for photographing greenery, sports activities, and skylines. However, companies across sectors recognise that UAV’s have a variety of commercial uses, some of which extend beyond simple monitoring, shooting, or video graph, and they are already transforming everyday work in certain industries. Over the last five years, unmanned aerial vehicles have developed a foothold in the business sector. Several large technology firms are considering drone delivery options, while others are researching whether specifically outfitted drones might provide Internet connectivity in distant regions.
1.2 Problem Statement
In the advanced technological system, most industries have introduced modern technological systems that have enabled them to enhance their capabilities in their periphery. In that case, it has been seen that the Next Generation Air Transportation System is the most adaptable system that has advanced the control system in the aviation industry. Alongside, several industries, along with this industry, have introduced the unmanned aerial vehicle, which is without a crew, and has enabled the industries to get more facilities.
In that case, the main problem of this research is to evaluate the impressions of people regarding these modern technological tools and systems. The UAV and “Next-gen” have enabled industries to provide services in several areas and control the overall process with accuracy. Now, considering this fact, this particular research has evaluated the different variables and implications of this new technologically advanced process.
1.3 Research Justification
In the modern age, the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is an upgrade of America’s air transportation system headed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The term “NextGen” is often used to refer to the transformation from a ground-based air traffic control tower to a satellite-based air transportation sector. It is not limited to a single technology, product, or goal. Rather than that, it encompasses a range of technologies, laws, and procedures, all of which have been modified after rigorous safety assessments.
The majority of people view a drone, also known as an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), as a sophisticated technical instrument or an enthusiast’s tool for shooting vegetation, sporting events, and cityscapes. However, businesses across sectors recognise that UAVs offer a range of commercial applications that go beyond basic monitoring, filming, or video graphing, and that they are already changing daily work in certain sectors. Different industries are using this technological advancement for different types of work. In this regard, this study focused on the transformation and perception of people for such types of initiation. Therefore, this particular research is rational and ideal to examine the topics.
1.4 The Importance of Research
The significance of this research will be determined by its capacity to determine the reliability of various views produced by analysts in earlier investigations. It will aid future scholars in their understanding of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). This will be augmented by the study’s capacity to spot potential limits.
1.5 Aim and Objectives
The major aim of this documentation will be to identify the impressions of people regarding the advanced technological systems of the UAV and Next Generation Air Transportation System and focus on the effectiveness of this performance that has enabled several industries to enhance their performance in the context of their services.
Follow the aim of this research the objectives are listed in below:
To understand the concepts of Next Generation Air Transportation and Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs)
To identify the advantages for using the UAVs and Next Generation Air Transportation
To find out the risks that might be face due to UAVs and Next Generation Air Transportation
To understand the impression of the people on such modern technological systems
1.6 Research Questions
Based on the aim and objectives of the research the questions are structured in below:
Q1. What is the impact of Next Generation Air Transportation and Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) on several industries?
Q2. What are the perspectives of the people about UAV, s and Next Generation Air Transportation?
Q3.Do these advanced technologies have any revolution in the functional process of the industries?
Q4. What are the obstacles faced by the industries for initiate these technologies?
1.7 Research Structure
The present thesis is divided into five significant sections. Each of these parts will be discussed in depth in the sections that follow.
I. To begin, a framework (outline) is developed that summarises the central topic and importance of the impression of UAV’s and next generation air transportation on several industries.
II. A study of the literature based on academic publications, journals, and archives provides a starting point the investigation’s second section on impact of UAV, s and next generation air vehicles as well as issues.
III. The third chapter is dedicated to elucidating the research method through the qualitative content analysis.
IV. Chapter four contains the premises that underpin the study’s results based on selected method of research.
V. In the fifth chapter, the results are thoroughly analysed the findings to ensure that the stated goals and purpose are met.
VI. Finally, the conclusions and practical recommendations bring the research to a close.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
2.1 Literature Overview
This chapter address the new technological systems in the aviation industry regarding the next generation air transportation and unmanned air vehicle system. The literary section is tend to gather the relevant literary sources regarding the next generation air transportation system and unnamed air vehicles for its significance. This section is gathering the different scholarly knowledge from the different sources that help to establish a proper concept about the selected topic of this particular research. This section also clearly imply what is the impression of the on the new generation people about the technologies. In this aspect this section is also provide the necessary data and information from the relevant literary sources regarding the used technological way in this advanced auto-pilot air vehicles and next generation air transportation system. Alongside, this literary section helps to gather the information about the benefits of unmanned air vehicles and next generation technologies in the aviation industry. Also, from this section the associated risks identified accurately. In that path, the overall literary section is help to accomplish to gather the several data and information from the journals, assertion of scholars that verified the objectives of the research partially.
2.2 Conceptual Notion about Next Generation Air Transportation and Unmanned Air Vehicles (Uavs)
According to the statement of Mahmoud, Oyedeji and Xia (2020), the “Next Generation Air Transportation System” (NextGen) is an ongoing digitalisation and modernisation project of the “United States National Airspace System” (USNAS). The US ‘Federal Aviation Administration’ (FAA) started working on enhancements to NextGen in 2007 and intends to implement all of the key elements by 2025. Modernisation aims to improve the safety, performance, capability, accessibility, adaptability, consistency and durability of the USNAS while minimising the effect of aircraft on the ecosystem. As per the statement of Bauranov and Rakas (2021), The FAA plans to adopt the NextGen technology. The department has been working with businesses to explore possibilities using current aircraft equipment. This approach has allowed the consumers of airways to profit early while NextGen is on track for the long-term objective of time-based control of air traffic. Furthermore, its basic architecture has been replaced by the FAA. In addition to adding unprecedented to outdated equipment which cannot accommodate a wider conversion, the agency has decided that the best approach to update its services has been to initiate a new architecture that can accommodate state-of-the-art technology and enhanced capacity.
FAA modernization programmes or campaigns, like”En Route Automation Modernization”(ERAM)and “Terminal Automation Modernization and Replacement”(TAMR), are foundational pieces upon which the FAA could build the NextGen vision.The projects support NextGen goals with contemporary designs of software that provide the foundation for enhanced air traffic controller and management capabilities. Based on the statement of Batuwangalaet al. (2018), “UAV” is an aircraft category that can travel without the involvement of pilots aboard. The aeroplane elements, payloads sensors and a terrestrial command centre are the “Unmanned Aerial System”. They may be operated through technological devices on-board or through a ground control system. It is termed a “Remotely Piloted Vehicle” (RPV) when electronically piloted from the grounds and needs an effective wireless connection for control. Specific technologies may be designed for big UAVs and may be installed on boards or on vehicles in order to allow the closeness of UAVs which are restricted by the range of capacities of interaction.
As stated by Ivancicet al. (2019), UAVs are employed in strategic skills and surveillance. This technology may now be used to support crew members in the emergency preparedness sector. UAVs are categorised on the basis of the elevation range, durability and weight, and accommodate a variety of activities, from military to commercial. The simplest classifications of UAVs are usually supported by GPS receivers’ centres made up of devices such as laptops and other smaller equipment that are easy to transport by aircraft in tiny vehicles, onboarding or in packs (Sabatiniet al., 2020). UAVs with high accuracy sensors can explore the catastrophe region, capture images and make image and structure analysis possible for members of the team. Because UAV activities need on-site staff, access to the disaster zone first before accessing the impacted region will be beneficial for onsite crew members.
2.3 Evolution of Air Transformation Technologies
Zhaoet al. (2019) stated that the aviation sector is not unaffected by the impacts of the technological waves, which have generated a snap between industries and organisations. It’s not between the digital transformation innovators, unfortunately. Rather, it reacts simply to the new generation of innovation and follows developments to remain alert to contemporary customers’ needs and aspirations. Low-cost airlines have been the favourite option for travellers in the last several years. Travellers anticipate today, from the registration process till their trip is over, a customised encounter. According to the viewpoint of Zhuet al. (2020), aviation may make use of Sentiment Analysis to identify the requirements of its consumers and then develop its strategic plan. In its latest study “Future of the Airline Sector 2035,” the “International Air Transport Association” (IATA) identified technology and trends that would influence the aviation industry. In the report, the future of the aviation industry was recognised as cyber protection, automation and robotics, 3D printing, new production technological advancements, VR technology, increased realisation, IoT, Big Data, vitality and alternative energy sources, new aeroplane patterns, unconventional modalities of quick transportation and geospatial technology.
As per the viewpoint of Vermesan and Bacquet(2017), the evolving aviation sector - society, the atmosphere, legislation, economics and technology – has five main forces. While social, ecological, political and economic issues are uncontrollable, innovation should become the aviation industry’s biggest priority. The aviation business is in a fairly active condition with future, alternative means of transport such as Hyperloop with the increasing popularity of extremely advanced AR/VR technologies. Despite air transport currently remains the favoured method for long-distance travel, the sector may be activated if the newest technologies are not adapted and aligned. The CAGR in 2023 was projected by recent market research to be 46.4 per cent for AI. In order to ensure optimum consumer happiness, AI provides consumers with a customised travel experience. Based on the viewpoint of Gorbunova and Petrova(2019), the digital connection between airlines and passengers is personalised, optimised and increased through artificial intelligence. AI and ML have used consumers’ social attitudes to assist airlines to curate their services in accordance with the passengers’ requirements. The move to data democracy empowers the industry to take strategic, fact-backed choices. Big data, in conjunction with AI and ML, support the sector to anticipate and predict customer behaviour to improve its approach. As data is the most precious asset in the digital era, it is only smart to use data mining methods proactively to create a solid strategy that is highly likely to succeed.
2.4 Concept about the Current and Next Generation Technologies
As opined by Zabelset al. (2019), “Delta Air Lines” became the first airline this week to host its annual business fair for innovative technology. Technology is essential to the development of air traffic, and it is an example of this. Based on these new advancements in travel technology, the forecast has been prepared of the most interesting trends and technologies to be expected from airline companies and airports in the next 12 months and beyond to influence consumer satisfaction on and off the ground. Due to fast developments in robotics, efficiency in the aviation sector is increasing pace (Rahimi, Zibaeenejad and Safavi, 2018). The connector robotic systems become more prevalent, and amongst the most current instances there are Fraport’s new self-conducting guidance automaton known as YAPE for luggage transportation; “Incheon Airport” ”Airstar” robot; “Josie Pepper Munich Airport”; and the “British Airways” partnership with the starter “Bots and Us.” Blancoet al. (2020) opined that autonomous airfield equipment and robots relating to luggage also acquire momentum as well as robotics at the terminals. A notable instance is the “Vanderlande FLEET baggage logistics solution, which was deployed and tested at Hong Kong International Airport in Rotterdam the Hague Airport in order to improve the effectiveness in the process for baggage handling,” improved the ergonomic working conditions for terrestrial employees and future baggage managing operational activities in the airport.
According to the statement of Panagiotidis(2018), Drone is becoming growing famous with the shipment, and the newly introduced “Edmonton International Airport” (EIA) is entering a new strategic relationship with “Drone Delivery Canada” (DDC) that will transform the airports in western and northern Canada into a centre for drone cargo transport. The first regular drone distribution system from an airport is anticipated to occur worldwide. Nevertheless, innovation already is increasing momentum in the tourism sector with YOTHEL, for example, is testing the utilisation of drones to transport food and beverage demands to its guests in Amsterdam (Lidvallet al., 2021). Animated characters are another intriguing idea to maintain an eye on. “Japanese airline ANA” is creating new telecoms platforms to ‘affect the lives of all seven billion people worldwide, connecting people, connecting thoughts and aspirations. One of the aims of the team is to create experimentation that may allow sports fans to enjoy the “2020 Tokyo Olympics through telepresence robots”.
2.5 Benefits of Next Generation Technologies and Unmanned Air Vehicles (Uavs)
In the era of modern technology, high-tech adaptation is a common thing. Abdul Ghaffar, Richardson and Greatwood, 2021), asserted that this kind of high technology has led to the functional process in the aviation industry. It has prominently generated various benefits that would play a great part in the hearts of the staff of several industries as well as individuals. As per the statement of Qian (2021), to fully evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and their usage, it is necessary to look at both sides of the argument from a variety of perspectives. Liu et al., (2021) stated that in the era of the modern world, several technologies have used these high-tech systems of unmanned air vehicles and next-generation technology has given some benefits that are asserted below:
Due to the GPS (Global Positioning System) capability of unmanned aerial vehicles, they may be programmed and steered precisely to specific places. This is particularly advantageous in a number of circumstances. (Fukano et al., 2021). It is implied that UAVs are employed in precision agriculture for a number of purposes, including spraying fertiliser and pesticide, detecting plant infestation, and checking crop health. Farmers benefit from the accuracy of UAVs in terms of both time and money.
It is easily deployable
Most UAVS can be launched and controlled with very little expertise because of advancements in control technology (Debnath et al.,2021). When combined with the cheap cost of the majority of models, drones are more accessible to a broad spectrum of operators. Additionally, UAVs have a larger manoeuvrability range than manned aircraft. They can fly lower and in more orientations, which enable them to readily explore previously inaccessible regions.
The advanced tracking system
As per the statement of (Burgett, 2021), the next generation of air transportation will enhance the quality of the examination in a better manner. It has been seen that this advanced system has been launched for a long time, and has changed the journey of the assistance of this aviation industry. Mostly, these advanced technological systems are used by the aero-mission departments that have enabled them to execute their plans more effectively.
People will have a better experience
As per the statement of Cerro et al., (2021), people always tend to use advanced technologies that have enabled them to get a better experience from any kind of service. Due to this matter, the unmanned aerial vehicle is also a better proposed plan that would give people a better experience among them. The overall system is easily adjustable for the customers to enhance their expectations.
As per the statement of Ayamga, Akaba and Nyaaba (2021), this overall system is enhancing the durability of the functional process of the industries. In this regard, the operational journeys of the industries are going to be a better place because they will be able to enhance the quality of services they provide. Li et al., (2021) stated that this mission was specially initiated by the air industry to help them accommodate themselves with modern technology. The unmanned vehicle system is easily adjusted to the modern technological mindset.
2.6 Applicable Technologies Regarding the Next Generation Technologies and Unmanned Air Vehicles
According to the viewpoint of Amarat and Zong(2019), In most future UAV’s, conventional hydraulic technologies won’t be employed since they form a large aircraft mass penalty, limit the number of payloads accessible, and raise the complication and expenses of manufacturing of vehicles. The greatest substitute for hydraulic actuators for movement control may be “Electro-Magnetic Actuators” (EMAs). All UAV technology may not satisfy every UAV requirement, particularly in MAVs even but while EMAs have grown in power and may decrease the entire system’s weight, intricacy, and cost. EMAs are needed with higher torque, smaller weight and less power. For UAVs requiring extremely large power, “Hybrid Electric-Hydraulic Actuators” may be a short-term option. As per the statement ofWarsop, Smith and Miller (2019), DARPA is now investigating the invention of EMAs and gadgets containing intelligent materials transductor components, such as “piezoelectrical”, “electrooptic”, “magnetostrictive” and “memory alloys”. Current projects include the “Compact Hybrid Actuation Program”. Developments in existing interconnected power propulsion technology are expected to result in greater performance, smaller weight and cheaper expense generating and power conversion devices.APUs are in certain instances an appealing substitute to common driveshaft platforms, however, a lot of UAVs need much smaller APUs than they are presently produced.
As per the viewpoint of Chen, Tang and Lao (2020), in small-scale designs, the issue will be to maintain performance, weight and cost benefits. Low turbine numbers, air bearings and compact heat exchangers will be an important technology. Another way to supply spot energy is to disperse air-driven generators such as MEMS generators, however, problems with aerodynamics connectivity, signatures and overarching scheme benefits will have to be addressed. If propelling components can be installed on the fuel cells or hydrogen propelling technologies can work power and propulsion technologies could utilise the same fuel storage and dispensing mechanism. Based on the statement of Debnath, Omar and Latip(2019), it will either be needed to create propulsion-compatible fuel cell technology or to find methods to store, distribute and release hydrogen in an effective manner at ambient temperature. In a variety of technologies other than UAVs, research relating to hydrogen collection and delivery may also be utilised. Although beam energy could be utilised in certain situations to power a UAV, a broad variety of problems need to be addressed before this can be seen as a viable technology. Significant unsolved problems encompass safety, operating, aiming, monitoring, management of high-power beams and objectives. At best, the long-term potential of research is transmitted power.
2.7 Risk Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Next Generation Air Transportation
2.7.1 Risk Management of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
As stated by Outay, Mengash and Adnan (2020), in tackling UAV deterrence, the simplest and most fundamental approach is to prohibit the assault completely. The “Department of Defence”(DoD) is building a “Joint Information Environment” (JIE) for its numerous networking and sub-departments. By establishing a shared framework for the sub-departments, the Union will improve the general safety of the organization. The DoD also strives to incorporate additional identification verification for consumers of its program, in addition to its unification, and often monitors its networking for weaknesses. As opined by Shrestha, Bajracharya and Kim (2021), in addressing cyber security and UAVs, the FAA might use a similar strategy in “National Public Radio” (NPR). Nevertheless, this approach only applies to situations when GPS spoofing is used. Furthermore, the watermark made hacking harder, however not unattainable. Nevertheless, there are relatively few published statistics on policy choices to identify and mitigate the effects of deprivation that are suggested by the DoD and the Humphreys risk mitigation techniques.
2.7.2 Risk Detection System in Next Generation Air Transportation
Batuwangalaet al. (2018) stated that in accordance with the basic system parameters, all processes may be characterised. State variables identical across subsystems may be utilised if understood to obtain insight into the state of one component. In this instance, it proposes to utilise alternative UAV subsystems to monitor the speed or accelerating status and to detect potential hijack ages in the redundancy measures via differences. One subsystem2 the main GPS-based system2 has a great precision for typical activities, however is more sensitive to communication satellites. Sánchez-Partidaet al. (2021) opined that the redundancy subsystem may be less accurate, however more secure than the GPS system. The number of assessment inconsistencies and the time frame during which the differences arise is two essential elements for the comparability of repetitive observations of system parameters. An alarm system must have an appropriate proportion or spectrum of discrepancies; the alarm sounds when the variance among two redundancy measures exceeds this criterion. On the other hand, the differences in measurements may arise as a consequence of technical malfunctions if only the substantial difference lasts for a brief time.
2.8 Literature Gap
Despite the fact that the literature review addresses all of the important factual data regarding the topic of the research in the literature review, there is still a significant lack in the information due to the wide availability of a extensive variety of data on the subject matter. Because no specific company was chosen for discussion in the section of literature review, the segment of literature review turned out to be very general and not at all specific. Along with this, the literature review turned out to be a broad discussion rather than in-depth, which resulted in an information gap about the research issue as a result of the lack of specificity. Furthermore, the absence of a specific organisational case study that would create an opportunity for future research on this issue has not been conducted. Because of the limited section constraint, each and every aspect regarding the risk associated with the unmanned aerial vehicles and next generation air transportation, and also each of the applicable technologies regarding the next generation technologies and unmanned air vehicles, was not analysed in detail and therefore has been left out of the discussion, which represents yet another gap in the research in the literature review.
The overall literature review section has gathered the most informative sources regarding next-generation transportation as well as UAVs. The literary sources have enabled us to collect the stock with in-depth analysis regarding the advanced technological system. The literary collection of sources also gathers information about the technological uses of this advanced technological mission. Rather than that, this literary section is also gathering information about the risks that will be faced by the UAV as well as the next generation air transportation system.
Chapter3: Research Methodology
3.1 Research Philosophy
The third section of the research is committed to the methodology of the research, which describes the techniques and tactics used to acquire information and data. Furthermore, the research methodology section contains an affluence of information and is critical to the study’s overall success. As such, this chapter adds to the study’s overall growth. This section’s major aim is to develop a complete system of processes and procedures for the research endeavour as a whole (Cypress, 2018). To have a better understanding of the study’s major objectives, a preliminary step and method structure were established. The analysis section of a research report enables the reader to conduct a systematic assessment of the feasibility and efficacy of the study. A qualitative analytical approach was employed throughout the investigation, and secondary sources were consulted to acquire contextual information about the research issue.Additionally, secondary sources such as research papers, published papers, books, PDFs, and trustworthy websites were reviewed to obtain data for completing this research. Additionally, the section provides a comprehensive legitimacy statement outlining its obligation to comply with the study’s key components.
3.2 Philosophy of Research
The term “research philosophy” involves the belief in the techniques of analysis, the gathering, and utilisation of evidence about a phenomenon. It is self-evident that the Western tradition of philosophy recognises two primary research philosophies, namely interpretivism and positivism (Žukauskas, Vveinhardtand Andriukaitien?, 2018). The philosophy of interpretivism typically incorporates interpretivism into the research process. As a result, this places a premium on qualitative analysis above quantitative analysis. Taking into mind the nature of the present study area and the nature of the data obtained (qualitative), this specific philosophy has been demonstrated to be extremely beneficial for effective analysis rather than for depleting ineffective and repetitive mathematical analysis. Hence, the implementation of interpretivism in this research was appropriate (Ryan, 2018).
3.3 Research Design
A research design is used to address a research issue when the researcher does not have access to prior data or just has a few samples of study data (Rahi, 2017).The design of research is frequently evident in a variety of ways. And that is why the study design is initially concerned with data sources, data collecting and analysis methods, as well as with ethical considerations, which are often adequately respected in order to reach a valid result. The researchers used a qualitative approach and an exploratory research design to accomplish the following study objectives (Dannels,2018). The major aim or purpose of exploratory research design is to identify an issue for further inquiry or to operationalize the working hypothesis. The primary objective of theresearch designs is to generate new ideas and insights.
Exploratory research is frequently done when an issue is not yet well defined or its true extent is unknown. It enables the researcher to become acquainted with the topic or concept under investigation and, creates hypotheses for testing. Exploratory research assisted in determining the optimal research design, data collection technique, and subject selection in this research (Reiter, 2017). Another frequent purpose for undertaking exploratory research is to validate hypotheses prior to their commercialization, which is usually an extremely costly endeavour. Exploratory research reliedon secondary sources such as literature reviews and/or data analysis, qualitative approaches and thus turned out to be very much beneficial in this research.
3.4 Research Approach
The research approach is a plan and technique that comprises the phases of broad assumptions about particular methods of data gathering, analysis, and interpretation. It depends, therefore, on the nature of the research topic being addressed. The research approach is usually split into two categories:
the approach of “data collection” and,
approach of “data analysis” or reasoning (Van den Bergand Struwig, 2017)
In this research, a deductive research approach was employed to achieve success, since this is the approach that examines a well-established theory or phenomena and determines if it is valid in given situations. It has been stated that “the deductive method more nearly follows the route of logic.” The reasoning process begins with a hypothesis and progresses to a new hypothesis (Woiceshynand Daellenbach, 2018). The advantages of a deductive approach are that it makes available the possibility of strong correlations between ideas and variables to be explained along with the access of reaching to a certain extent, of generalising research results.
3.4.1 Data Collection Methods
The data gathering process involves assembling information from all relevant sources to address the research problem, testing the proposed solutions, and assessing the results. Methods of data collecting fall into two categories: secondary data collection techniques and primary data collection methods. The data collection process is an essential technique for collecting and quantifying interest factors, resolving specific research challenges, and designing plans and performance. The research employs a qualitative method that is guided by the concepts and fundamental questions governing systems of study and practice (Flick, 2017). The research’s implications were obtained through content analysis. Secondary qualitative sources were employed. Secondary data is information that has been gathered previously for a different purpose but is still relevant to the current research needs. It is the most complete compilation of data from a variety of sources and topics available. This study made significant use of secondary materials, including textbooks, journals, newspapers, and peer-reviewed publications (Andreieva, 2021).
The researcher made an extra effort to findseveral secondary data sources because they were important for assuring the authenticity and integrity of the planned research outcomes. Secondary data sources were easily accessible and were either entirely free or reasonably priced. It saved not only money, but also time. It enabled the researcher to generate novel ideas based on past analyses. Secondary data allowed for longitudinal analysis, which involved doing the research over a prolonged period of time. The qualitative data collection technique enabled the gathering of a significant quality of data and information, which serves as a critical driver for the study’s research goals.
3.4.2 Data Analysis Methodologies
Data analysis is the systematic use of statistical and/or logical procedures for the purpose of describing and illustrating, condensing and recapitulating, and evaluating data. Data analysis is a process that uses mathematical and/or logical techniques to explain and demonstrate, compress and reclaim, and analyse data. Throughout the data collection process, researchers often assess observation trends. Due to the thesis’s qualitative nature, the approach of content analysis was applied to find best results. By analysing and enciphering textual information, content analysis is a research technique that enables the generation of repeatable and accurate findings (Krippendorff, 2018). Content analysis is a type of research technique that is used to ascertain the existence of particular words, topics, or concepts within a body of qualitative data (i.e. text). Researchers can measure and evaluate the existence, meanings, and correlations of certain keywords, themes, or concepts using content analysis. This is exactly why the researcher in this research utilised to content analysis; to gather the suitable data for the successful completion of the research.
3.5 Research Sample Selection
Sampling is the process of identifying the assortment from which a researcher will gather data for his or her research. Establishing sample sizes and proportions for tests is a critical step in the research process (Moser and Korstjens, 2018). Data collection is a crucial stage in the analytical evaluation process. The goal of this is to evaluate the data in order to arrive at the correct assessment by a systematic examination. The present study drew on secondary sources such as Google Scholar, PDFs, newspapers, magazines, etc. Non-random sampling was used to select the data. Academic integrity was preserved as a result of these websites, which provided genuine academic research material of tremendous epistemic import.
3.6 Consideration of Ethical Issues
In general, ethics is a set of written and unwritten laws. The majority of ethical issues occur when research makes use of human or animal material. Along with being a crucial aspect of research ethics, wider research concerns involve behaviour requirements such as the obligation to disclose results openly and the prohibition of falsifying work or plagiarising the work of others. This ethical evaluation of research bolsters the goal of increasing public awareness of and enthusiasm for the research. In a nutshell, ethical concern requires the researcher to do the analysis in accordance with established standards and guidelines (Iphofenand Tolich, 2018). Additionally, such ethics provide direction for accomplishing the research’s objectives. Ethics forms the foundation for correctly directing research processes, therefore preventing any breach of confidentiality.
It is, without a doubt, the most critical component of study analysis, and as such, should conform to the strongest ethical standards. To get the intended conclusion, the researcher must conform to particular ethical standards when creating the study framework. When practitioners are striving to do a basic task, it is critical that they adhere to certain ethical standards. To ensure the research’s authenticity, the researcher has ensured that ethical rules and principles are followed in order to preserve the study’s standard. The research was conducted in accordance with applicable privacy and security standards. Throughout the data collection process, the researcher complied with data security procedures to ensure the privacy of the information. While collecting data, the researcher used correct reference standards to resist being charged with plagiarism and to maintain the work’s academic integrity.
Chapter 4: Findings
Source 1: From Fighting War to Forecasting Weather, Uavs Change Everything – CBINSIGHTS
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), together with the Internet of Things (IoT), have been considered to be one of the main imperative promising digital technologies. For the last 10 years, the exploitation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) has been observed in multiple sectors including supervising of environment, improvising military applications, and in the case of the entertainment industry. As a matter of fact, it is extensively anticipated that the technological advancements in UAV impact on facilitating in solving problems related in various industries. In fact, broad ranges of institutions are discovered utilising drone technology for several purposes.
Healthcare industry – Healthcare sectors also got benefited through utilising this technology for various purposes. In terms of modern medicine, it has a thoughtful influence on escalating life expectancy, preventing disease, and elevating broad principles of living. As a matter of fact, a number of rural regions do not succeed to obtain superior quality healthcare, and people living in those areas are unable to attain the facilities of health care due to several reasons (CBInsights, 2019). The necessity of argent supplying of medicines, blood, and drugs can only be transported by utilising drone technology. WakeMed Health & Hospital in North Carolina united with the state’s department of transportation during the time of conducting a pilot program to examine the reasonableness of using drones to transport medical parcels between hospital sites.
Weather Forecasting – It is quite observable that scientists are influencing the latest appearance of hardware and software in order to congregate effective information to facilitate the study of climatic changes and to demonstrate superior forecast potential changes to the global system of weather. The utilisation of drones to measure weather forecasting is extremely accommodating as it provides a versatile option that might follow weather patterns as they develop. Consequently, the effective exploitation of water-based unmanned surface vehicles (UAVs) has been considered responsible for modifying the way data is assembled. Therefore, Saildrone has urbanized a sovereign sailboat which proves to be accommodating in gathering oceanic and atmospheric records from the ocean surface.
Tourism & Hospitality – The way drones have to accomplish the marketing of several hotel sectors is exceedingly experimental. In the 21st century, digitalization and social media have become a significant part of our daily life. Through making influential and attractive commercials utilising drone technology has been proved to be extremely accommodating for catching the attention of customers in luxurious segments. As a matter of fact, Design firm HOK visualizes drone hotels that can pass through to new positions on the requirements of the customers.
Retail Industry – The utilisation of UAVs has been experiential extensively in case of retail industries in order to deliver goods. Amazon is extremely popular for its innovative strategies with the space and focus on execution and logistics. As a matter of fact, the ecommerce giant’s patent activity interrelated to drones is frequently considered recurrent and remarkable as mentioned in (CBInsights, 2019).
On the other hand, Walmart has made a huge success through the exploitation of drones during the time of delivering process. As it has been observed from various report that almost 90% of Americans are considered to live within 10 miles of the company’s location, the significance of drone technology has been experiential broadly for offering the products.
Source 2: ALPA Perspectives on the Next Generation Air Transportation System (Nextgen)
People's perspectives on the Next Generation Air Transportation System have been changed and they look forward to implementing the latest technologies related to Air Transportation System. However, for several years, Air Line Pilots Association, International (ALPA) is dedicated to working with legislators, regulators, and industry associates in order to renovate the airspace systems. Consequently, the implementation of the Air Transportation System (NextGen) has been considered as the initial decision taken by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) program in order to improvise the whole system (NextGen). 2015. As a matter of fact, the general perception of people in the case of the Next Generation Air Transportation System has delivered multiple beneficial opportunities. Therefore, in terms of UAV technology advances these aircraft are fetching more frequently and reasonably priced, providing augment to disputes which weigh their repayments against innovative ethical and legal apprehensions.
Safety Benefits and Conceptualisation: The involvement of NextGen in the case of sustaining safety has become a primal aspect. As a matter of fact, modernization labourers must have at their interior the essential standard that the elevated level of security take pleasure in North America cannot be unfavourably impacted as pointed out in (National Research Council, 2015). Secure and well-organized modifications are indeed considered fundamental to the constant sturdiness of the airspace system and exclusively to the airports and the ATC system. Consequently, transformation curriculum such as NextGen and comparable efforts in Canada and in other places has been considered crucial in the case of the future of aviation protection.
The basic enhancement of the airport for NextGen will be accommodating for developing security-related problems. As a matter of fact, the layouts at several airports affect an elevated amount of risk of runway invasions whereas others function at abridged throughput in case of unnecessary runway residence time. Through the modifications of airport layouts along with various things rerouted taxiways and enhanced signage are considered as the significant parts of the overall NextGen explanation to progress protection and effectiveness. It is indeed true that the ATC system has stimulated from unraveling flights utilising radio position reports to optimistic control using radar in all but the majority remote, in case of inhabited regions of North America. It is quite observable the fact that aircraft navigation is looking forward to the ground-based navigation system to a satellite-based navigation system, and that facilitates attaining an unparalleled height of arranging precision (National Research Council, 2015). The utilisation of GPS technology has been proving to be accommodating to permit various categories of aircraft in order to fly tremendously defined approaches around the globe during any type of climate through the utilisation of mere satellite-supported navigation systems.
Source 3: Drone Technology Uses and Applications for Commercial, Industrial and Military Drones in 2020 and the Future
The prestigious writer of this article Divya Joshi has thrown a light upon the usage of drone technology in various industries. The writer has started the discussion showing the rapid growth and rising popularity of Unnamed Aerial vehicles or Flying mini-robots globally. Though the drone adoption culture has not seen mass adoption the traditional barrier in the diverse industries has already been broken through. Various businesses are relying on drones for managing operating organizational operations in various areas. From, quick deliveries to scanning distant military bases, drones have been proven to be extremely beneficial for efficient operation conduction added by Divya Joshi.
Drones offer multiple benefits to a firm, for instance, work efficiency, reducing workload, decreasing production cost, enhancing consumer relations and reducing security issues on a vast scale. Hence, drone technology has brought up a revolution across the industries that have helped businesses to gain wider scope, boost potential and widened the global reach. Basically, drones are controlled by remotes and via smartphones. The main cause behind the rapid and worldwide adoption of drones is their easy access in remote areas with little manpower, time and effort. The drone has emerged in most of the industries of the world but especially the military, personal, Future Technology and Commercial is swiftly and massively implementing drone technology. Apart from these areas, as mentioned by Divya Joshi, drone technology is also used in multiple activities, for instance,
Shipping and delivery service
Building safety examination
For geographic mapping in remote terrain and various locations
Shipping and delivery service
Supplying essential objects for disaster management
Military drone Technology
Divya Joshi has further inserted that drones have been primarily used by militaries in present times. In military forces, drones have been used in a combat missions, supervision and in research and developments. The report published in this paper by Goldman Sachs stated that the global military will spend $70 billion on drones by the year 2020 and these drones play a primary role in the resolution of conflicts and in substituting human pilots.
Commercial Drone Technology
The article has stated that commercial use of drones is also gaining steady momentum and becoming a regular part of the daily functions of businesses. It is expected that the commercial market of civilian drones will grow at the rate of 19% between the year 2015 and 2020. Though the industry is still considered young the huge investment from the industrial conglomerate is giving shining hope to the industry. soon, commercial drones will be massively used in fertilizing crop fields, monitoring traffic incidents, delivering foods, surveying places that were hard to reach.
Fig 1: Top industries using Drone
(Source: Joshi, D. 2019)
Personal Drone Technology
Due to the rise of civilian drone rise, safety concern has also been increased. As per BI Intelligence, drone sales is expected to rise by $12billion in 2021. Along with this, a small amount of money will also come from personal drones that are used mainly for photography, gaming, recording and filmmaking.
Future Drone Technology
Divya Joshi has discussed in the article that future drone technology is evidencing groundbreaking progressive improvements. The next and upcoming generation of drone Generation 7 is underway. 3DRobotics has already announced that they will soon be introducing an all-in-one smart drone named Solo.
Source 4: The Advantages and Disadvantages of Aerial Drones
Throughout the article, Veronica Cruz has drawn out several advantages and disadvantages of UAVs. Discussed below,
Sustaining Safe Environment: Veronica Cruz added, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be utilized for a range of functions that contribute to a safer ambience. Drones can observe circumstances, flag potential threats, and alert individuals to unfavourable circumstances using their remote monitoring features, assisting in the creation and maintenance of a safe atmosphere (Cruz, 2019). Drones fitted with cameras, for example, camera-equipped drones can assess traffic patterns and assist drivers in avoiding high-risk locations.
Affordable and cost-effective technology: The cost of owning a drone isn't as costly as it once was because drone technology is always being improved. As a result of this, its demand among the general population has skyrocketed, and one can now buy old drones stated by Veronica. As a result, drones are no more exclusive to the military, law enforcement, or the wealthy.UAVs can also save money in a variety of ways; for example, UAVs can be used as a substitute for several manned activities, reducing personnel costs. The writer further added drones can also save money and energy because a single drone can perform activities that would normally take numerous vehicles to execute. They're also less expensive to buy, operate, and fuel than ordinary aircraft.
Quality Image and Live streaming: Drones can capture high-resolution data and take high-quality aerial films and images mentioned by the writer. This information can be used to make precise 3D maps and comprehensive 3D models, which have a wide range of applications. 3D mapping of catastrophe regions, for example, can help rescue crews be adequately equipped prior to approach dangerous circumstances. Drones are often utilized for streaming live monumental events and major occasions in the entertainment business, as well as governmental and global events, due to their capacity to record high-quality photographs and films.
Privacy Disruption: Veronica stated, while drones have various benefits, they are also a device that can be readily exploited because UAVs could be used to intrude on the security of a particular target person or group. Numerous personal liberties can be compromised in the sake of offering personal or public protection with a drone, given the several reasons pushing for its use.
Endangering public safety: When it comes to aerial drones, security is paramount. UAVs must be designed with the capacity to feel and identify potential accidents so that they can safely manoeuvre around them commented by Veronica. These competencies must match those of manned aircraft pilots to prevent any potentially harmful consequences.
Threat to nature: Drones are subject to assaults by wild animals and might potentially constitute a hazard to the environment. The writer has further added, when flying UAVs inside a region where there is a lot of wildlife, there's a good chance you'll crash into a tree or collide with a helpless creature.
Chapter 5: Discussion
Based on the secondary data collected and interpreted for this research on identifying the perception of people on various industries in terms of utilisation of air transportation systems of the upcoming generation and unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). The evaluation of the interpreted data has been structured based on the objectives of the research through the conception of content analysis to gain the desired outcome that would help to meet the research aim.
Undeniable Impact of Next Generation Air Transportation and (UAVs)
For the past ten years, operations in several fields, including environmental supervision, improvised military applications and entertainment business using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been seen. The research findings have supported the statement of Batuwangala et al. (2018) on the increasing use of drone technology for various uses being found in many organisations. Technology advances in UAV are predicted to have an influence on many industries on solving challenges. Medical advances have a careful effect on the increase of life expectancy, illness prevention, and the promotion of wide living principles. There are many rural locations, which are unable to get better health care, and individuals who live in these places cannot achieve health facilities. Drone technology can convey the requirement to provide medications, blood and pharmaceuticals in remote regions. To assess the rationality of utilising drones to carry medical packages around medical centres, medical organisations are collaborating with the state or national transportation departmentsfor the pilot programme. It was regarded accountable for changing the way data is gathered for the successful exploitation by water UAVs.Drones are highly useful for measuring weather predictions as they offer a versatile alternative, which may track weather trends as they evolve.
The research has found another significant information about digitalisation and social media becoming an important aspect of our everyday lives in the 21st century. Through the creation of powerful and beautiful advertisements using drone technology, agreeing with Ayamga, Akaba and Nyaaba (2021), consumers’ attention in luxury sectors has proven highly comfortable. Some hotel companies envisage drone service in hotels, which may take different locations according to customer demands. The patent activity of Amazon linked to drones is often regarded to be recurring and noteworthy. During the delivery procedure, Walmart had tremendous success by using drones. The importance of drone technology for the production of commodities has been recognised broadly.
Perspectives on UAVs and Next Generation Air Transportation
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) programme has viewedthe complete system for Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen)to be the first decision to innovate, as found during the data interpretation. As the advancements in UAV technology is concerned, aligning with the opinion of Bauranov and Rakas (2021), such aircraft are more often and more affordably picked up to increase conflicts, which evaluate their reimbursement against novel moral and legal fears. Indeed, people have generally seen several good prospects with the Next Generation Air Transport System.The NextGen initiative is a congressional-controlled initiative to modernise America’s satellite-based air traffic control system to enhance aeroplane flight route accuracy, radar display and time operations, enhance capacity, effectiveness, ability to forecast, versatility, environmental impacts and security, as found in from the review of literary articles and the research findings collaboratively. The participation of NextGen has become a vital element in maintaining security. Indeed, modernisation workers should have the necessary standard inside of the company, which cannot unfavourably influence the high degree of security. The fundamental upgrade of the NextGen airport is designed to address security-related issues. Furthermore, the ATC system has promoted optimistic radar monitoring in all but a majority of rural areas of North America from unbroken flights with the use of radio position reports.
UAVs and NextGen: Bringing both Enormous Advantage and Certain Risks
The research study has found an extended idea of what Panagiotidis (2018) and Qian (2021) have stated in their studies. Drones may use their remote monitors to study situations, risks to identify possibilities and notify people of unfavourable conditions to help create a secure atmosphere and maintain it. Drones with cameras can, for example, evaluate the traffic patterns of camera-equipped drones and help drivers to prevent high-risk regions. The cost associated with owning a drone is not as expensive as before due to the constant improvement of drone technology. Consequently, its demand in the general public has risen, and old drones are now available for sale. Furthermore, the military, law enforcement, or privileged are no longer solely availed with drones. In addition, UAVs may save money in many ways; UAVs can also be utilised as a substitute for various manned tasks, lowering staff expenses, for example.
The research has stated that drones can save resources and energy since a single drone can conduct operations, typically involving many vehicles. These are also cheaper than regular aeroplanes to acquire, operate and fuel. Drones may collect and take high-quality aerial videos and pictures with high-resolution data for the entertainment sector or others. Besides, as mentioned in the literature review, IATA has identified 3D printing to be a significant benefit of using UAVs. Such information may be utilised to produce accurate 3D maps and extensive 3D model applications. For example, 3D mapping of disaster zones can assist rescue personnel to be properly prepared before dangerous situations might approach. Drones are commonly used to stream massive live events and big events in the entertainment industry and government and international events because of their ability to record high-quality photos and videos.
As Outay, Mengash and Adnan (2020), Shrestha, Bajracharya and Kim (2021) and Sánchez-Partida et al. (2021) have discussed the risk of drone usage in various sectors,this research has also identified certain obstacles of this technology to be implicated widely with ease. While drones have many advantages, they are also a technology that may be easily utilised, since UAVs can be used to affect the safety of a certain target individual or group. To supply personal or public security by a drone because of the many reasons for its usage, several personal freedoms may be violated. Drones are vulnerable to wildlife assaults and may be an environmental concern. If UAVs travel to locations that contain a lot of wildlife, the pilot is likely to smash with a tree or with a vulnerable creature. Safety is critical when it comes to unmanned drones. UAVs should be developed to be able to sense and recognise impending mishaps to enable them to navigate safely around. Such skills must similarly approach those of manned aircraft pilots to avoid potentially damaging results.
The Future of Advanced Technologies in Drones: Revolution in the Functional Process of Industries
Different enterprises use drones to manage their operations in diverse sectors. Drones have proved immensely useful for effective functioning, from rapid deliveries to inspecting remote military locations. It can be seen in the study findings that aeroplane navigation looks forward to the ground-based navigation system being provided with a satellite navigation system, which enables an unsurpassed level of precision to be achieved. Sabatini et al., (2020) and Fukano et al. (2021) have attempted to speak about GPS technology and its crucial part in the implication of drone technology. The application of GPS technology has been suitable for allowing numerous types of aircraft to use simple satellite-supported navigation systems to fly incredibly specified approaches around the world in any kind of environment. Because of the surge in civil drone use, safety concern has also grown. Drone sales are predicted to expand by a hefty amount, based on this current research and what has been found in the study of Joshi (2019), which have been evaluated during both literature review and secondary data interpretation process. In addition, there is also a modest sum of money from personal drones, which are usually used for the production of photos, games, recordings and movies. The future of drone technology is showing increasing breakthroughs. The upcoming next generation of drones is in progress, as the research has indicated through secondary data collection, and3D technology combined with drone technology is already in the path of making all-in-one smart drones.
Drones give a company various advantages such as productivity and effectiveness, workload reduction, cost savings, increased consumer interactions, and widespread safety concerns reduction. Drone technology has therefore been bringing about a revolution across the industry that has allowed firms to acquire more breadth, enhance their potential and broaden their worldwide reach. In essence, drones are operated remotely and often this is done via smartphones. The major reason for the fast and global acceptance of drones in distant regions with the minimal workload, effort and time is their easy availability.
have developed in various sectors across the globe, and this technology is quickly and extensively used in particular in militaristic, personal, future technology and business applications. These UAVs are employed in fighting, monitoring, and research and development tasks in the armed forces. The world army is ready to spend huge monetary investment on drones today and these drones would play an essential part in conflict resolution and human pilotage replacement. The commercial usage of drones will likewise increase steadily and become a permanent component of organizations’ everyday activities. During the last decade, the commercial market for civil drones is anticipated to rise by a considerable degree. While the sector is still regarded as young, the large investment of the industrial group gives the industry brilliant optimism. Commercial drones would soon be employed on a large scale in crop fertiliser fields, traffic control, food supplies, and screening locations impossible to access.
Chapter 6: Conclusion
The entire study is based on identifying people's perceptions of modern UAV systems and next-generation air transportation. People are becoming more reliant on contemporary technologies in the current age. As a result, every sector makes use of contemporary technology to expand their reach among the populace. In this regard, the aviation sector, retail business, and health sector have all benefited from the contemporary UAV system. Through the use of UAVs, companies may accelerate the functional system's evolution toward a more scientific and contemporary state. NextGen is the FAA-led modernization of America's air transportation system. Therefore, regarding this matter, this particular research has gathered the appropriate data and information regarding the high-tech process of UAV’s and next generation air transportation. In this particular research, the relevant sources from the different literary sources have helped to assess the roles of this technology as well as identify the risks as per the projections of this technology.
Regarding this matter, this research has followed the qualitative secondary method through content analysis that has helped the research to accomplish its objectives. From the results of the content analysis, it has been seen that many industries have used modern unmanned air vehicle systems. Alongside, it has helped to gather the appropriate information and data regarding the topic. From this overall research, it has been concluded that advances in UAV technology are expected to have a positive impact on the way various sectors solve problems. Medical advancements have a significant impact on life expectancy, disease prevention, and the promotion of healthy living practices. Consumer focus in premium industries has proved to be extremely comfortable due to the development of strong and attractive advertising utilising drone technology. Certain hotel businesses envision drone service in their establishments, which may take place in a variety of places depending on client demand.
From this particular research, The Aviation Administration Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Wireless Communication System (NGATS) initiative was regarded as the first choice to reinvent the whole industry. The "NextGen" initiative is a congressionally mandated effort to modernise America's land sat traffic control system in order to improve aircraft route precision, radar display, and time operations, as well as capacity, effectiveness, forecast ability, flexibility, impact on the environment, and safety. Furthermore, based on the findings of the entire study, it has been concluded that the industries have reaped numerous benefits as a result of this advanced technology.Drones may utilize their remote monitors to assess circumstances, dangers, discover opportunities, and alert people to unfavorable conditions in order to contribute to the creation and maintenance of a secure environment.
Rather than that, from this research it has also been concluded that the industries are facing some obstacles in the projection of these high-tech technologies into their services. However, from the overall assessment of the research, it can be decided that this new venture has brought a great revolution in the operational service systems of organizations.
In the initiation process of unmanned air vehicles and next generation air transportation, there are some issues that have been faced by several organisations within the various industries. In this regard, there are some appropriate suggestions that would help to resolve the identified issues in this research.
In that case, privacy disruption is a common issue where organisations do not have to provide the system in those areas where it is restricted. The organizations have to follow the norms of "No Fly Zones" (Alaorganisations2020). Drones are prohibited from being flown over places designated as "No Fly Zones," which include regions near airports, international borders, the State Secretariat Complex in state capitals, important sites, and military installations.
Security is critical when it comes to aerial drones. UAVs must be built with the ability to detect and identify possible collisions in order to safely navigate past them. To avoid potentially hazardous outcomes, these skills must equal those of human aircraft pilots (Yaacoub et al., 2020).
In order to avoid the damage caused by the drones and the assaults by wild animals, organisations have to pre-decide the areas (Yaacoub et al., 2020). If they have to do these things, then it would be better for them to fly the drones over the safe areas which will cause no harm.
6.3 Future Research Scope
The entire research is based on the assessment of public perceptions of contemporary UAVs, S systems, and next-generation air transportation. Regarding this matter, this particular research is based on several industries. The overall findings were conducted through the gathered data and information based on the data of several industries across the globe. Now, the same topic will have the researcher focus on a particular industry regarding the topic. If it happens, the researcher will be able to prove more specific data and information related to the topic. In this particular research, the researchers gathered information about the versatile organisations in the literary section. But, if the researcher collects the data and information on a particular industry, then it will have more profound ramifications on the projection of the research. The analysis of a particular focus will reveal more instances that vary the precise clarification of the research aim and objectives.
6.4 Alternative Research method
The overall research was introduced through the qualitative secondary analysis. The content analysis process has helped this research to enrich its contents. In this regard, for further research on this particular topic, the researchers will use the following primary analysis process. The primary analysis process will produce more in-depth results using sorbet and interviews. Primary research satisfies the researchers' unique requirements. Due to the fact that it is based on the gathering of original data, the researchers may be very precise about the study's goals, objectives, and reasoning. It is current and has more details. In primary research, researchers have a high degree of control. They may determine who the research respondents are, how they will be recruited, the sample size, and sampling methods, among other things.
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