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Strategic management can be defined as managing company's resources in such a way that leads to achieve overall goals and objectives effectively. Manager undertakes the bundle of acts and decisions which result in determining the actual performance of firm (Van Buren, Greenwood and Sheehan, 2011). Strategic management is all about how administrator plans for both foreseeable and impractical contingencies. It refers to the art of managing workers in a systematic way which maximizes the competency of accomplishing business targets. It is the blueprint of strengthening position of business entity, pleasing consumers and attaining performance goals and targets effectually.
The main purpose of Strategic Management is to make business enterprise able to compete with its rival in an effective way. It provide broader view and understanding to the employees regarding their fit-ability in the organisation. It focuses on increasing the productivity and ability of personnel who works in order to achieve the company's objective effectively.
Strategic human resource management is an element of strategic planning that maintains balance between company's internal strength and weakness with its threat and opportunities that are available externally. SHRM means executing and formulating practices and policies related to human resource that improves the skills and competencies of employees and behaviours that business needs to attain its strategic objective (Tooksoon, 2011).
Strategic industrial relation refers to an approach that examine the strategic choices proposed employers, workers. It centred those choices that leads to achieve individual as well as organisational objective effectively. Strategic Management helps to gain competitive advantage for the company which serve as a benefit over their rivals. It makes the firm competent enough to deal with its competitors in a structured way. Managers often made strategies in terms of Safety, Retention and Grievance. It can be developed on three different level:
Business Strategy, This unit covers the strategic issues in terms of gaining competitive advantage for the firm over their rivals. Company can use differentiation, focus and cost leadership in order to create higher competitiveness level. For positioning themselves better against competitor, managers are required to anticipate dynamic changes accordingly.
Functional Strategy, In this, strategic issues are related with value chain and firm processes. At this level, managers provide resources to business or corporate unit which helps in achieving overall organisational goal effectively.
Corporate Strategy, It is concerned with managing business activities and interrelationships. It ensures long term success by assisting the business portfolio in a constructive way.
There are various government policies which are related with maintaining balance relationship between employees and employer and encourage better relationship within workplace which companies are required to adapt or follow. For instance, Australian company follows Fair work act, 2009 in their business practices (Storey, 2014).
Organisation formulate strategies which is related with the occupational safety and health of employees. It determine the migration risk which may adversely affect the company ongoing operation and practices. Therefore, firms require to establish effective strategies that minimize the risk factor and protect personnel from illness and injury at the workplace. Managers are require to make strategies concerned with employees and employer welfare in such a way that leads to attain the company's goal effectively and also benefits them to grow personally and professionally.
The main aim of strategic management in education is to assess and explore sustainable changes which can be done for increase knowledge of employees and removing their shortcomings. In strategic management, formulation and execution of major objectives and initiatives are taken in account by top administration on behalf of owner. The goals are based on resource consideration and review of external and internal surrounding in which the firm competes. Strategic planning administer overall direction of the company which includes specification of organisation's objectives, plans and policies formulation. In order to achieve these goals and allocation of resources they focus on effective execution of plans. (Martín Alcázar, Miguel Romero Fernández and Sánchez Gardey, 2013).
Human resource management play an important role in the management of resources. Effective and efficient utilization of these resources helps in accomplishment of goals and objectives of the firm. Strategic or Human resource planning in education is the transformation of management in order to enhance basic education, imply long term change procedures with a set of activities performed by the staff members in educational department. Strategic educational management leads to develop and strengthen various ways in order to improve efficiency and effectiveness to achieve equity and relevancy of educational activity.
The present scenario of change educational need to be assessed to explore sustainable enhancement as it is the priority in management of education. Changes are emphasized on establishment of education and improvement to attain sustainability. Professional development of human resource and learning processes are related with strategic management. Sustainable improvement is the main objective of educational management. The process of human resource management hiring and development of employees so that they become valuable assets of the organisation. Industrial relation is related to relationship between administration and human resource. Personnel management includes all the activities which an organisation undertakes to ensure optimum utilization of workforce towards the achievement of organisational, group and individual goals.
Strategic management and human resource planning are interrelated with educational needs. Organisation should identify the needs of the employees and provide them appropriate training so that they become able to perform effectively at workplace. It is necessary to establish good relationship between employer and employees so that it assists in the betterment of industrial relation. The firm should ensure to provide safe and healthy environment to its employees at workplace so that they stay motivated and work enthusiastically towards the achievement of goals and objectives of the organisation.
Performance Management can be defined as a process of creating healthy work environment which encourages the employees and employers to perform their best in achieving the overall organisational goal. It is about how managers monitor the performance of their workers and review their performance. In the modern scenario, HR Manager is bound to perform activities related to raising employee motivation and enlargement of high performance leaders. Company's set certain benchmark on the basis of which they assess the performance of their workers. According to Lengnick-Hall, Beck and Lengnick-Hall, (2011) It refers to the system that generate clear cut job description and select right pool of people for the job who contributes enough to achieve target of the company effectively. It help the personnel to understand what firm is expecting from them. They are require to work according to the defined standard set by the entity. Regular coaching and feedback serve as an advantage in terms of assessing the problem and taking corrective measures at an initial stage.
HR Managers using the concept of performance management in handling the performance of their employees according to desired goal or target. HR Manager extracts the best from their worker by providing them the clear picture of their specified job. They also monitor their performance and on the basis of that they provide positive and negative feedback. With Positive feedback, employees are rewarded with certain compensatory benefits and for negative, they undergo with training and development programme. HR Manager also support the worker to develop themselves personally and professionally in such a way that led them to handle future contingencies effectively. HR support decisions related with administrative process that further includes rewards, compensation, promotion and termination. The performance management cycle compromises of three different stages:
(Source: Performance Management Process, 2017)
Plan, HR Managers develop work plan that defines the accurate job description of employees, what task they need to perform and what are their defined roles and responsibilities. Certain standards and measures are set according to their specified job description. They set SMART objectives for their worker according to which they need to perform (Kramar, 2014).
Monitor, At this phase, progress of employees is monitored continuously. They judge on the basis of their final output or results achieved. Managers identify the barrier which are causing hindrance in the performance of their personnel. They also share feedback with them, which give them the opportunity to know their possible weakness or threat.
Review and Evaluate, Managers evaluate the notes and documentation related to their worker performance management. This can be done by reviewing the final result defined for each objective. It also includes developing corrective measures which deals with unforeseen contingencies. They also ensure that each employee should get the copy of this documentation which may have adverse impact on their personal life as well.
The main focus of Human resource management is related with development of all the people who are employed at work places so they can enhance their current knowledge level. Training and development activities should be organised for employees so they can achieve growth and success and gets an idea how they had to carry out their business operations. If there are plans developed in order to provide continuous development to all employees then it will results in achieving all goals and objectives that are set by human resource department.
Employee relations can also be achieved if there is training and other activities organised for the employees who are involved in performing business activities so they will know how they had to carry out their working and they can also be educated about different methods which results in establishing good relations with all the workers so they can achieve the assigned goals and targets in desired time frames (Daley, 2012).
Health and social care department should also organise workshop training and other programmes by which they can educate their care workers in relation to the precautions that they had to adopt while doing treatment of people. There should be development in the machines and techniques used by them so they can provide treatment to all employees. There should be plans developed in order to develop continuous education activities for all the workers which results in developing strong relations.
Human resource management are linked with making strong relations between managers and employees. This is an important task in order to develop positive working environment where all workers will be happily performing their assigned business operations and firms will achieve growth and success in performing their business operations. Human resources also involves effective use of all the resources which are available in economy thus achieving strategic objectives of organisations (Dessler, 2011). Diversity should be managed at work places as it helps in bringing together people of different cultures. As there are advancement in technologies and there are different tools available like internet, cell phones and this have helped people to keep in touch with one another. If Human resources wants to effectively perform their business operation's then they had to focus on managing diversity at work places and this should be the culture which should be adopted in the overall business organisations.
HR managers at work place should implement their plans and strategies which are linked with policies and plans should be based on the performances of the employees in order to maintain equality at work places. The diversity factors can be easily managed if there is no discrimination among the employees. Once plans and policies have been adopted at work places the firms can focus on implementing measures related with diversity in whole business organisation. All the candidates which the firms are hiring from different background they should be rated on the basis of the quality which they have and these should not be judged on the basis of cultures, religion sex etc. (Jackson, Schuler and Jiang, 2014).
Industrial relations should also work in order to manage diversity at work places. The managers should maintain strong relations with all the workers and they should not maintain relations on the basis of any favouritism according to culture and religion of people. If there are healthy relations at work place then it results in development of positive working environment and employees are happily performing their assigned tasks.
Work place health and safety should also ensure diversity at work place the Managers should focus on hiring care workers who belong to different cultures and background as it helps bringing people of different cultures together. The nursing staff should provide equal treatment to all people and they should not differentiate them on the basis of cultures or any other religious beliefs etc.
Recruitment is the activity which is related with hiring talented and potential employees from the overall pool of applicants. This is the most vital and important activities related with management activities and these are valuable in securing effectively workforce who can easily perform all business operations (Buller and McEvoy, 2012). Human resource Management are mostly focusing on recruiting skilled and talented employees who can easily perform all business operations and assist them in achieving growth and success in their business operations. If HRM are focusing on making plans in order to carry out effective policies for hiring talented workers who can develop new and innovative ideas by which firms can easily perform all the business operations. There should also be focus of human resources in order to retain employees for long time durations so they will easily achieve all business aims and objectives in desired time frames. The employees can easily be retained if the plans and policies are developed which are beneficial for them and firms are also working in order to make employees promote at higher levels at work places.
Good and effective employee relations can be maintained at work places if employees cooperate with each other. This is an effective policies as employees will not be facing any type of difficulty in performing their operations thus they will timely achieve all their assigned targets. The firms can easily achieve success in their business operations if they are focusing on employee relations and this also results in developing healthy and positive environment at work places. Employee relations are very beneficial terms as it results in retaining employees for long time at work places who are having skill and talent and they easily achieve all business goals and objectives. Retention is helpful in saving cost and time of firms which they would have wasted on hiring new and potential employees who can make the firms attain growth and success in their overall business activities (Armstrong, 2011).
The workplace health and safety are also important and vital factors. In order to ensure better treatment given to all employees, companies should make sound HR policies relating to health. At health places it is important to develop strong relations among all the care so they can support each other in order to provide effective treatment to all employees thus organisations can easily achieve success in performing their business activities. The care workers should be retained for long time at work place as they are having knowing and experiences how they had to deal with different patients and provide them effective treatment which is beneficial for them and cost will also be saved which would have wasted on hiring new workers and provide them training so they can perform their business activities.
According to the above mentioned report, it can be concluded that in order to achieve overall organisational goals effectively, company needs to formulate constructive strategy in their business practices. It refers to the descriptive approach that how plans can be transformed into actions or practices. The main purpose of this is to make firm enough able to compete with their rivals. They define their objective in such a way that gives them the advantage of higher competitiveness level over their rivals. Employees are required to perform according to defined benchmarks set by company itself.
Books and Journals
Armstrong, M., 2011. Armstrong's handbook of strategic human resource management. Kogan Page Publishers.
Buller, P. F. and McEvoy, G. M., 2012. Strategy, human resource management and performance: Sharpening line of sight. Human resource management review. 22(1). pp.43-56.
Daley, D. M., 2012. Strategic human resources management. Public Personnel Management, pp.120-125.
Dessler, G., 2011. Fundamentals of human resource management. Pearson Higher Ed.
Jackson, S. E., Schuler, R. S. and Jiang, K., 2014. An aspirational framework for strategic human resource management. Academy of Management Annals. 8(1). pp.1-56.
Kramar, R., 2014. Beyond strategic human resource management: is sustainable human resource management the next approach?. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. 25(8). pp.1069-1089.
Lengnick-Hall, C. A., Beck, T. E. and Lengnick-Hall, M. L., 2011. Developing a capacity for organizational resilience through strategic human resource management. Human Resource Management Review. 21(3). pp.243-255.
Martín Alcázar, F., Miguel Romero Fernández, P. and Sánchez Gardey, G., 2013. Workforce diversity in strategic human resource management models: A critical review of the literature and implications for future research. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal. 20(1). pp.39-49.
Storey, J., 2014. New Perspectives on Human Resource Management (Routledge Revivals). Routledge.
Tooksoon, H. M. P., 2011. Conceptual framework on the relationship between human resource management practices, job satisfaction, and turnover. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies. 2(2). pp.41-49.
Van Buren, H. J., Greenwood, M. and Sheehan, C., 2011. Strategic human resource management and the decline of employee focus. Human Resource Management Review. 21(3). pp.209-219.
Wright, P. M. and McMahan, G. C., 2011. Exploring human capital: putting ‘human'back into strategic human resource management. Human Resource Management Journal. 21(2). pp.93-104.
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