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Strategic Corporate Finance Assignment Sample

Introduction

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Financial aspects are the backbone of a company. Share prices of a company are directly related to the financial aspects. Proper clarity needs to be present in the financial statements provided by companies so that people can see before they invest in the form of shares. The company selected for this report is HSBC Holding Plc. As a financial analyst at Sunderland Consultancy Ltd, it is necessary to discuss about the share prices of the last five years of HSBC along with the financial ratio analysis derived from the financial statement. The financial strategy of HSBC will also be provided in the report.

Company Overview

HSBC Holding Plc is a multinational organisation of the British origin. They work in the field of financial services and investment banking. According to the reports of 2020, in Europe they are the 2nd largest bank with assets comprising of US $2.984 trillion. It was first established in the year of 1865, with headquarters situated at London, England, UK. Sir Thomas Sutherland was the founder of HSBC. The chairman of the company is Mark Tucker. According to the reports of 2020, the annual reports suggests that revenue of HSBC is US $50.429 billion and their total equity is US$50.429 billion. There are 226,059 employees working under them worldwide.

Analyse 5-year share price performance

Date

Price ($)

Volume

Change in price

Change in price %

01-10-2016

37.63

41824300

1.91

4.8%

01-11-2016

39.54

45694600

0.64

1.6%

01-12-2016

40.18

48535700

2.42

5.7%

01-01-2017

42.60

34769000

-2.30

-5.7%

01-02-2017

40.30

53734700

0.52

1.3%

01-03-2017

40.82

45261600

0.35

0.9%

01-04-2017

41.17

37194100

2.32

5.3%

01-05-2017

43.49

43110100

2.90

6.3%

01-06-2017

46.39

36047800

3.70

7.4%

01-07-2017

50.09

30152100

-1.69

-3.5%

01-08-2017

48.40

27546200

1.01

2.0%

01-09-2017

49.41

19370100

-0.64

-1.3%

01-10-2017

48.77

26921600

0.88

1.8%

01-11-2017

49.65

23479100

1.99

3.9%

01-12-2017

51.64

36259900

2.27

4.2%

01-01-2018

53.91

44150400

-4.28

-8.6%

01-02-2018

49.63

41290100

-1.96

-4.1%

01-03-2018

47.67

38892400

2.59

5.2%

01-04-2018

50.26

29684800

-1.88

-3.9%

01-05-2018

48.38

28568500

-1.24

-2.6%

01-06-2018

47.14

28333200

1.28

2.6%

01-07-2018

48.42

23885500

-4.41

-10.0%

01-08-2018

44.01

26434900

-0.02

0.0%

01-09-2018

43.99

25275500

-2.90

-7.1%

01-10-2018

41.09

79489900

1.45

3.4%

01-11-2018

42.54

39654700

-1.43

-3.5%

01-12-2018

41.11

53190200

1.02

2.4%

01-01-2019

42.13

41391500

-1.30

-3.2%

01-02-2019

40.83

36719000

-0.25

-0.6%

01-03-2019

40.58

43748700

2.99

6.9%

01-04-2019

43.57

34431900

-2.80

-6.9%

01-05-2019

40.77

40552500

0.97

2.3%

01-06-2019

41.74

30539900

-1.58

-3.9%

01-07-2019

40.16

27213600

-4.26

-11.9%

01-08-2019

35.90

83725000

2.37

6.2%

01-09-2019

38.27

49062700

-0.48

-1.3%

01-10-2019

37.79

68933300

-0.53

-1.4%

01-11-2019

37.26

46166400

1.83

4.7%

01-12-2019

39.09

45324300

-2.80

-7.7%

01-01-2020

36.29

48566100

-2.72

-8.1%

01-02-2020

33.57

88398900

-5.56

-19.9%

01-03-2020

28.01

183023300

-2.28

-8.9%

01-04-2020

25.73

96275300

-2.68

-11.6%

01-05-2020

23.05

92851200

0.28

1.2%

01-06-2020

23.33

106671000

-0.68

-3.0%

01-07-2020

22.65

80553900

-1.02

-4.7%

01-08-2020

21.63

67453200

-2.05

-10.5%

01-09-2020

19.58

79303200

1.40

6.7%

01-10-2020

20.98

69560200

4.91

19.0%

01-11-2020

25.89

69572300

0.02

0.1%

01-12-2020

25.91

52163500

0.24

0.9%

01-01-2021

26.15

44717200

3.56

12.0%

01-02-2021

29.71

40672400

-0.57

-2.0%

01-03-2021

29.14

50751600

2.08

6.7%

01-04-2021

31.22

39773300

1.16

3.6%

01-05-2021

32.38

36414700

-3.53

-12.2%

01-06-2021

28.85

41326900

-1.28

-4.6%

01-07-2021

27.57

44134100

-1.13

-4.3%

01-08-2021

26.44

40988500

-0.68

-2.6%

01-09-2021

25.76

40737100

0.00

0.0%

 

The calculation and graph provided above indicates the change in the share prices for the last 5 years calculated monthly. There are number of ups and downs noticed in the graph. Several reasons are there for this result that affected the prices of shares drastically (Rochman, 2020). It is necessary for the employees of the company to check various aspects affecting the prices of shares so that there is no negative impact in the market. A number of reasons are present for the share prices of HSBC to go down. These will be discussed under.

A. Rise of Covid-19: One of the main factors of the downfall is due to the rise of Covid 19 worldwide. All businesses were almost shut due to the lockdowns started all over the world. People were in fear with their lives and stopped investing in share market to some extent. This resulted in no demand in their shares and the prices started to fall.

B. Fraudulent Activities: According to a report provided by BBC (bbc.com, 2020), it was stated that in both 2013 and 2014 there were fraud activities happening in HSBC, where the fraudsters transferred huge amount of money throughout the world and the management of HSBC knew about everything. This led to a mistrust among the investors and they started to withdraw their investment and stopped reinvesting in the company. This also led to a downfall in the market.

C. Inflation: This is another reason for which the price of HSBC shares have fallen. With the rise of inflation, fear emerged among the people, for which they have started to stop investing further (Oxley and Hu, 2017). This led to a fall in the prices of the shares of HSBC.

Being the 2nd largest company in Europe, they have failed to be consistent. This have resulted in the downfall of share prices of HSBC. They need to work on all the aspects properly so that the prices rises again and the people start to invest in HSBC again.  The Government also needs to perform the duties so that inflation can be cut and people again get enthusiasm in investing in the shares.

Financial Ratios

Ratio Analysis

Formulae

2020

2019

2018

2017

Profitability

Net Profit Margin

= (net income / sales )*100

10.34%

13.02%

25.48%

20.88%

Return on Assets

= Net income / Total Assets

0.0018

0.0027

0.0054

0.0043

Return on Equity

= Net income / Shareholders' Equity

0.03

0.04

0.07

0.06

Liquidity

Current Ratio

= Current Assets / Current Liabilities

0.328

0.312

0.342

0.310

Quick Ratio

= (Current Assets - Inventory)/ Current Liabilities

0.325

0.308

0.338

0.306

Cash Ratio

= (Cash Equivalent + Cash)/ Current Liabilities

0.25

0.14

0.16

0.18

Gearing

Equity Ratio

= Total Equity / Total Assets

0.066

0.068

0.073

0.075

Debt Ratio

= Total Liabilities / Total Assets

0.931

0.929

0.924

0.922

Debt to equity Ratio

= Total Liabilities / Total Equity

14.15

13.71

12.69

12.21

Efficiency

Asset Turnover Ratio

= Net Sales / Average Total Assets

0.0169

0.0209

0.0211

0.0205

Inventory Turnover Ratio

= Cost of Goods sold / Average Inventory

5.588

5.446

4.607

5.159

 

The calculation of financial ratios are important for companies to check the financial condition of the business. This is calculated by using the financial statements. There are four main heads of ratios that are calculated to check the financial conditions of HSBC Holding Plc. A total of four years’ analysis is done so that the exact changes can be showed.

Profitability Ratios

The first analysis is of the profitability ratios that includes net profit margin, return on assets and return on equity. The ratios are calculated from 2017 to 2020. It is seen that all the aspects are downward. They have huge incomes but the sales have gone down drastically. This has led to the fall in the net profit margin over the years. With the rise in cost, there has been a decrease in the sales. The return on assets and equity is also not good. They are unable to use their assets to increase the income. They need to check all the aspects properly so that the issue of profitability can be reduced.

Liquidity Ratios

The liquidity ratios helps organisations to check the liquidity conditions of their business. In certain conditions whether their liquid assets can cover their liabilities or not. This part shows complete volatility, where there is up and down in the liquidity of HSBC over the last four years. This includes current ratio, quick ratio and cash ratio. Though there is a volatility in the liquidity, still they are able to cover their liabilities with the liquid assets that includes current assets properly. This shows that they are capable enough to perform the activities properly.

Gearing Ratios

This is another form of ratio performed to check the financial conditions of the business. Through this ratio, equity is checked to that of the debts, or fund borrowings done by the company. This ratio includes equity ratio, debt ratio and debt to equity ratio for the time period 2017 to 2018 for HSBC Holding Plc. This shows a positive impact, where there is a constant rise in all the particulars of gearing ratio. This suggests that they have attracted their investors to invest well in their business. They have started to gain trust of the investors and are performing to attract them so that the issues can be checked.

Efficiency Ratios

This is another form of ratio that is used to check the ability of an organisation to use their assets in order to generate income for them. These ratios includes asset turnover ratio and inventory turnover ratio (Heriyanto et al., 2021). The time period taken to calculate is from 2017 to 2020. It is observed that there has been a fall in the asset turnover ratio and an increase in the inventory turnover ratio for HSBC. This is mainly due to the increase in the inventories over the years. They need to control their inventories properly so that this does not exceeds a certain limit. The company is liable to perform this activity properly to attract more investors in their business, which will help them to perform well in the market.

Financing strategy

Balance Sheet of HSBC Holding Plc (All numbers in thousands)

2020

2019

2018

2017

Total Assets

2,98,41,64,000

2,71,51,52,000

2,55,81,24,000

2,52,17,71,000

Cash, Cash Equivalents & Federal Funds Sold

55,93,54,000

41,47,47,000

42,51,87,000

40,19,33,000

Cash And Cash Equivalents

32,87,26,000

17,38,85,000

18,23,83,000

20,03,80,000

Cash

30,44,81,000

15,40,99,000

16,28,43,000

18,06,24,000

Cash Equivalents

2,01,51,000

1,48,30,000

1,37,53,000

1,31,28,000

Cash And Due from Banks

40,94,000

49,56,000

57,87,000

66,28,000

Restricted Cash And Investments

5,95,43,000

4,91,48,000

3,32,02,000

-

Money Market Investments

23,06,28,000

24,08,62,000

24,28,04,000

20,15,53,000

Federal Funds Sold & Securities Purchased Under Agreements to Resell

23,06,28,000

24,08,62,000

24,28,04,000

20,15,53,000

Security Agree to be Resold

23,06,28,000

24,08,62,000

24,28,04,000

20,15,53,000

Long Term Equity Investment

2,66,84,000

2,44,74,000

2,24,07,000

2,27,44,000

Derivative Assets

30,77,26,000

24,29,95,000

20,78,25,000

21,98,18,000

Net Loan

1,15,00,57,000

1,13,81,14,000

1,08,56,01,000

1,11,70,82,000

Allowance for Loans And Lease Losses

1,45,32,000

87,48,000

86,38,000

74,84,000

Receivables

1,02,78,000

1,92,55,000

1,83,38,000

1,76,79,000

Prepaid Assets

81,14,000

90,57,000

87,15,000

79,29,000

Net PPE

1,44,14,000

1,47,02,000

1,00,60,000

1,00,27,000

Gross PPE

1,44,14,000

1,47,02,000

1,00,60,000

1,00,27,000

Other Properties

1,44,14,000

1,47,02,000

1,00,60,000

1,00,27,000

Goodwill And Other Intangible Assets

2,04,43,000

2,01,63,000

2,43,57,000

2,34,53,000

Goodwill

58,81,000

55,90,000

1,29,86,000

1,35,88,000

Other Intangible Assets

1,45,62,000

1,45,73,000

1,13,71,000

98,65,000

Defined Pension Benefit

1,04,50,000

82,80,000

79,34,000

87,52,000

Assets Held for Sale

2,99,000

1,23,000

7,35,000

7,81,000

Other Assets

8,04,13,000

7,53,28,000

6,95,25,000

5,82,89,000

Total Liabilities Net Minority Interest

2,77,91,69,000

2,52,24,84,000

2,36,38,75,000

2,32,39,00,000

Total Deposits

1,76,14,06,000

1,52,69,83,000

1,45,14,62,000

1,51,04,21,000

Trading Liabilities

5,63,14,000

7,05,80,000

6,95,46,000

6,77,35,000

Derivative Product Liabilities

30,30,01,000

23,94,97,000

20,58,35,000

21,68,21,000

Long Term Debt And Capital Lease Obligation

25,36,61,000

27,38,32,000

23,10,26,000

21,14,58,000

Preferred Securities Outside Stock Equity

18,56,000

22,44,000

21,97,000

22,97,000

Other Liabilities

19,83,43,000

22,20,51,000

24,43,03,000

19,51,36,000

Total Equity Gross Minority Interest

20,49,95,000

19,26,68,000

19,42,49,000

19,78,71,000

Stockholders' Equity

19,64,43,000

18,39,55,000

18,62,53,000

19,02,50,000

Capital Stock

1,03,47,000

1,03,19,000

1,01,80,000

1,01,60,000

Common Stock

1,03,47,000

1,03,19,000

1,01,80,000

1,01,60,000

Retained Earnings

14,05,72,000

13,66,79,000

13,81,91,000

13,99,99,000

Additional Paid in Capital

1,42,77,000

1,39,59,000

1,36,09,000

1,01,77,000

Other Equity Interest

2,24,14,000

2,08,71,000

2,23,67,000

2,22,50,000

Minority Interest

85,52,000

87,13,000

79,96,000

76,21,000

Total Capitalization

44,54,90,000

45,31,83,000

41,72,79,000

40,17,08,000

Common Stock Equity

19,64,43,000

18,39,55,000

18,62,53,000

19,02,50,000

Net Tangible Assets

17,60,00,000

16,37,92,000

16,18,96,000

16,67,97,000

Invested Capital

44,54,90,000

45,31,83,000

41,72,79,000

40,17,08,000

Tangible Book Value

17,60,00,000

16,37,92,000

16,18,96,000

16,67,97,000

Total Debt

25,36,61,000

27,38,32,000

23,10,26,000

21,14,58,000

Net Debt

-

9,53,43,000

4,86,43,000

1,10,78,000

Share Issued

2,10,18,895

2,09,63,798

2,03,60,841

2,06,46,273

Ordinary Shares Number

2,06,93,621

2,06,38,525

2,00,35,568

2,03,21,000

Preferred Shares Number

1,450

1,450

1,450

1,450

Treasury Shares Number

3,25,273

3,25,273

3,25,273

3,25,273

 

The balance sheet of HSBC Holding Plc has been provided above to show the financial strategy. There are various areas where proper works are necessary to be done. The areas where they need to work is the assets. They are unable to use the assets to increase the profits of the business. This is affecting them as the profits are going down. The sales have also reduced, which is another concern for them. It is necessary for the management to think properly so that the issues can get solved. Being the 2nd largest company in Europe and providing service worldwide, it is necessary for HSBC to act properly in order to stay in the market. Financing needs to be done properly in areas where they are lacking. The overall operations need to be financed properly to make the whole mechanism work properly. Few financing strategies they can work on are:

A. Debt financing: This strategy of finance will help HSBC to take money from other lending institutions. In this process, they can repay the loan amount along with the interests agreed by both parties. This is a safer way to financing strategies.

B. Equity Financing: Another way through which this can be done is equity financing. HSBC can collect money in the form of equity from the market. This is an easier way through which financing can be done. This can then be invested in proper areas so that the business performs well.

These two ways of financing can help HSBC to gather funds from the market and use them properly in different areas so that fruitful results are received. It is necessary for the management to look into all the aspects properly so that the performance gets boosted and they perform well in the market.

Conclusion

The report provides a clear understanding of all the activities of shares. The reason for the rise and fall of the shares of HSBC are also discussed in the report. It is necessary for the company to check the recommendations so that the prices do not fall. The financial statements are well analysed with the help of financial ratios. Both the negative and positive areas are explained properly. The company should follow all the areas so that proper care can be taken about the financial statements. This is the main area through which people gets interested to invest in different organisations. Finally, the financing strategies are also discussed properly so that this can be used by HSBC to boost their performances. Thus, it can be stated that proper informations are provided for HSBC to follow and perform well in the market to remove all the negative aspects.

Part C

Introduction

Dividend is a very important part of any organisation. The management gives dividend to their shareholders from the profits earned by them. This is generally performed so that the investors are happy and they re-invest in their business. Dividend becomes a factor for the increase or decrease in the share price. The report will provide a detailed understanding as to what happens when the dividend policy do not change and when the dividend policy changes. Dividend irrelevant Theory will also discussed in this context to show that the use of dividend in the price of share needs to be changed. 

The company decides not to change its current dividend policy

Earnings per share in 2021 = HK$ 6

Return on share = 15

Hence, Share price = 15 * 6

= HK $ 90

The company decides to change its dividend policy

Earnings per share in 2021 = HK $ 6

Earnings to be retained = 60%

EPS to be given = HK $ 2.4

Return on Share = 15

Hence, Share Price = 15 * 2.4

= HK $ 36

Above calculations show the difference dividend brings in the change in share price. This should not be dependent on the dividend policy. There are times when the companies are unable to pay dividend. This should not affect the price of shares in the market.

Critically examine the “for” and “against” theoretical views of the Dividend Irrelevance Theory.

Dividend irrelevance theory shows that dividend should not bring any change in the share prices of the organisations. A dividend is termed as a payment of cash that is provided from the profits earned by the organisation over a period of time that is provided to shareholders for investing. Dividends cannot be a part to fix the price of shares. According to the dividend irrelevance theory, dividend components must not determine the cost of a company's stock (Udobi and Iyiegbuniwe, 2018). This may have an impact on the company's pricing and share capital. In an ideal capital market, dividend policy should be independent of any factor. This is correct, as the dividend is provided as a return to shareholders for their investment in the company. This should not be used to determine the price of a stock. If the dividend policy and the share price are linked, a change in one can impact the other. This notion must be followed by organisations since an independent dividend will help the firm to function well. It is important for businesses to retain a portion of their profits, which may be used in the event of an emergency or for the development of new products. Then, as a result of the dividend policy's reliance, share prices may fall, resulting in a loss of share capital for the company. A lower share price may induce owners to sell their shares in order to avoid risk, which is not good for company. Rather of being combined with the share price, dividends should be computed independently and distributed to shareholders as a reward. Dividends to shareholders are a good way to enhance their confidence. They are more likely to invest more in the company, which raises the share capital.

Including dividends in the share price calculation has a significant impact on the firm. To avoid a change in the share price, it is important to limit the impact of dividends.

The price of a share should not rise or fall as a result of a change in dividend policy. This has long-term consequences for the corporation, with both positive and bad consequences. To reduce the direct impact, dividend should be kept free. If a corporation intends to pay a dividend, it can do so by distributing it separately. The dividend ratio may be computed using the number of shares held by shareholders. However, employing them to regulate pricing can also hurt the market. Small businesses with minimal profit margins are unable to pay dividends. In that situation, if the dividend policy is not independent, the stock price may decrease. They might lose a lot of money in the market. Since a result, it can be concluded that the dividend irrelevance hypothesis is critical for organisations to adopt, as it allows dividends to remain independent, therefore benefiting all firms (Budagaga, 2017). As a result, maintaining a correct balance sheet is also required in order to pay dividends. Companies must keep a certain amount of their earnings in order to use the funds for a variety of purposes. These aid in improving the company's success. Finally, the greatest solutions can be reached if the dividend that is to be given to investors is kept autonomous and not used as a factor to boost or reduce the share price (Raza et al., 2018). This would assist businesses of all sizes in doing effectively in the market and boosting their economies appropriately. As a result, it can be concluded that utilising dividend irrelevant theory by businesses might be beneficial to the market as well.

Conclusion

The report provides a detailed understanding of the difference dividend policy brings in the share price. This shows that share price is indirectly dependent on the dividend policy to some extent. The organisations should work on the same so that organisations who cannot pay dividend do not lose out in the share market. Proper rules need to be set so that equality is followed among all companies. Dividend irrelevance theory should be followed by organisations that suggests dividend should be provided as a reward and not as a mean to control the share price in the market. Proper understanding needs to be present to have clear view of the aspect.

References

AlAli, M.S., Al-Yatama, S.K., AlShamali, N.M. and AlAwadhi, K.M., 2020. The Impact of Dividend Policy on Kuwaiti Insurance Companies Share Prices.

Budagaga, A., 2017. Dividend payment and its impact on the value of firms listed on Istanbul stock exchange: A residual income approach. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues7(2), p.370.

Heriyanto, S., Purnamasari, R., Arum, M., Suheny, E. and Nuryanto, U.W., 2021. Analysis of Financial Statements as Assessing the Financial Performance (Study at the Cement Sub-Sector Manufacturing Period 2016-2018). Ilomata International Journal of Management, 2(2), pp.51-65.

HSBC share price rockets 50% since its 25-year low (2020). Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/business-55155826 (Accessed: 25 September 2021).

Limbong, C.H., Simanjorang, E.F., Harahap, N.J. and Nasution, Z., 2021. FINANCIAL RATIO ANALYSIS AT PT ADARO ENERGY Tbk BASED ON THE 2017–2020 FINANCIAL STATEMENTS. Indonesian Interdisciplinary Journal of Sharia Economics (IIJSE), 4(1), pp.77-86.

Oxley, L. and Hu, Y., 2017. Exuberance in British share prices during the railway mania of the 1840s: Evidence from the Phillips, Shi and Yu Test.

Raza, H., Ramakrishnan, S., Gillani, S.M.A.H. and Ahmad, H., 2018. The effect of dividend policy on share price: A conceptual review. International Journal of Engineering & Technology7(4.28), pp.34-39.

Rochman, A.S.U., 2020. Macroeconomic impact on share prices: evidence from indonesia. Solid State Technology, 63(6), pp.646-660.

Udobi, P.I. and Iyiegbuniwe, W.I., 2018. A Test of Miller and Modigliani Dividend Policy Irrelevance Theory in Nigerian Stock Market. American Finance & Banking Review2(2), pp.1-13.

Yahoo is now a part of Verizon Media (2021). Available at: https://finance.yahoo.com/quote/HSBC/financials?p=HSBC (Accessed: 25 September 2021).

 

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