Introduction - Social Determinants of Health Case Study Analysis
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Social determinant of health
Social determinants of SDH of healthcare, perform a very crucial function in health inequities which can be described as an unfair and avoidable deviation in the scenario of the health status of countries. Outside of the clinical advantages structure, drives the desire to shape approaches and practices in non- thriving locales in propensities that advance success and flourishing regard. In this part, a brief discussion on SDH will be followed with its importance and the way it functions based on a case study.
Figure: Social Determination of Health
(Source: Cuellar et. al. 2020)
Social determinants of health influence health outcomes, which are considered as a non-medical factor. Shaping of life depends on several factors such as the place where people were born, brought up, started their job and age. These factors are also considered as the forces, which shape life, which includes an economic system as well as policies, aim and objectives of life, social policies and regulation and also includes political system (Cuellar et. al. 2020). The SDH or social determinants of health play a very crucial role in health inequities, which can be described as an unfair and avoidable deviation in the scenario of the health status of countries. In all countries across the world, income, health, and illness of people reflect on the social gradient of the country, if the socioeconomic position is showing a lower rate means the health status of the country is worse. SDH is categorised into five divisions, such as economic stability, education access and quality, social and community context, health care access and its quality.
In general, there are several factors of SDH which can affect health equity in both positive and negative ways, such as income and social protection, insecurity of food and job, unemployment, social inclusion, social conflicts, condition of job life, early childhood development, education and allowance of quality health services within an affordable cost (Bell et.al. 2021). After so much research, it has been found that social determinants are more essential than health care as well as lifestyle choices; more specifically SDH is able to account for 30 to 55 per cent of health results (Gov.UK, 2022). Proper identification as well as understanding the fundament of SDH will help to improve health by decreasing long-standing inequities of health. There are several challenges that should be mitigated by addressing health inequities with the SDH.
A social determinant of health equity is a critical and multifaceted concept, which requires a vast number of stakeholders of the health sector. Sometimes it is also observed that it becomes very tough to get proper information as well as data regarding SDH. The US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention or CDC describe SDH as life enhancing resources such as food, health care, economy, housing, education, social relationship, and transport plays a very crucial role across the population of a country to ensure the length and quality life leading by their citizens. The Health Divide and The UK Black reports were based on two primary action strategies in order to identify the ways, influencing the factors of SDH (Spiess, 2021). The next cultural behaviour explanation identifies personal choices of an individual is enough to determine the reasons for their development and death.
It is also observed that, in order to address social determinants of health across as well as Outside of the clinical advantages structure, drives the desire to shape approaches and practices in non- thriving locales in propensities that advance success and flourishing regard. Inside the clinical advantages structure, there are multi-payer government and state drives as well as Medicaid- express drives zeroed in on watching out for amicable necessities. These join models under the Centre for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation, Medicaid development design and piece change drives, and choices under Medicare. Managed-care plans and suppliers comparatively are occupied with exercises to see and address social necessities. For instance, 19 states required Medicaid controlled care means to survey for as well as give references to social necessities in 2017, and one more examination of Medicaid regulated care plans found that basically noticing plans detailed exercises to address social determinants of flourishing.
According to the case study there, two factors can be found in order to analyse the SDoH of Liya. Liya faces the challenges of two SDH factors such as health care and economic stability. As stated, Liya's husband lost his job due to the pandemic covid 19 and their 5 family members, therefore facing issues due to lack of money can also be considered as the factor of economic stability reflecting, immediate living situation, family circumstances. Therefore it is clear to express that they are suffering due to economic instability and Liya also stated that due to lack of sufficient money, their six years old child is unable to get education from recognised schools, which lead to societal factors of discrimination (Cuellar et. al. 2020). Next, it is also observed that Liya is a patient with type II diabetes, asthma, obesity, who needs regular medication in order to fight this disorder. In this case, she needs healthcare guidance also at an affordable cost. At this time Liya and her husband need a job as well as employment to continue the economical flow as well as their regular expenses.
It can be concluded as the discussion of SDH is well established with its functional work. A case study has been followed to develop the immediate living system, a family condition that influences the factors of SDH. More specifically, Liya's husband lost his job due to the pandemic covid 19 and their 5 family members, therefore facing issues due to lack of money can also be considered as economic stability. In this regard, a critical overview of SDH by identifying the current scenario of Liya is discussed properly.
Role of community health nurses
Community health nurses deliver a vast range of services to all healthcare sectors. Community nurses are more focused on the factors of environmental, sociocultural, economic, community health, as well as physiological in order to manage a large level of population. Several functional practices regarding the case study will be discussed which will help to evaluate the case study and its related health care factors.
Figure: Role of community health nurses
(Source: Bell et.al. 2021)
Community health nurses play a very crucial role in the healthcare system. They are dealing with a vast field of practices such as clinician, manager, advocacy, collaborator, educator, researcher as well as leader also (Bell et.al. 2021). Community health clinicians, play an important role to manage as well as establishing better communication within a large system. They are also responsible for promoting health awareness considering a wide range of wellness and illness. In addition, community health nurses need several skills such as observation, communication, listening, physical care and counselling. Recently it is observed that the skills of community nurses should be focused on the factors of environmental, sociocultural, economic, community health, as well as physiological in order to manage a large level of population. In order to meet their requirements as well as meet the public health care needs, community health nurses functionally work in the field of educator, advocacy, and leadership. According to the case study, the community has to play a diverse role in order to direct Liya in a proper direction by identifying the problems and the way of mitigation. The functions can be considered as educator, advocacy, leadership, clinical. Explanations of the functional role of a clinical nurse are discussed below, based on provided case study,
Educator maintains a wide range of functional roles regarding the practice of good nursing. It is one of the major roles in the health care sector (Cicutto et. al. 2020). According to this role, nurses are focused to seek patients' learning attention and promoting good health suggestions in order to cure their physiological as well as mental issues. Educator practices are all about the proper implementation of psychological applications through expression, belief, behavioural practices and skills to communicate with any kind of people, patients as well as with their families and to ensure them for better medication and care from the organisation side. As educator nurses are focused and seek attention of their clients they act as a consultant also by holding formal classes and sharing formal information with their clients.
They also promote a self-care approach in order to ensure a healthy and disease-free life for their clients. In the case of Liya, the community health nurse should role as an educator as well as a consultant in order to guide Liya as well as to motivate them to take the required steps to get a healthy life. Liya is a critical patient of Type II diabetes, asthma and obesity, which are not curable but a patient can get a better life as well as perform better under proper medication and treatment (Spiess, 2021). Therefore Liya needs a proper educator who will suggest proper guidelines in order to Liya’s health. Next is advocacy, community nurse of Liya needs an advocacy functional nurse to provide her equal and humane treatment in order to encounter the discrimination due to the unemployment of her husband.
Community nurses will influence Liya to consume the right and healthy foods, proper use of required drugs and put on necessary health care decisions in order to promote healthcare community awareness to fight against critical health issues (Zimmerman et.al. 2021). In addition, Recently it is observed that community health care advocacy is getting popular day by day because people are getting their general health care rights, as well as they, are getting proper treatment from the healthcare service provider at an affordable cost. As Liya suffers from financial issues, she needs advocacy in order to get proper treatment as well as healthcare guidelines at an affordable cost. Healthcare advocacy has two goals to change the system according to the client's requirement in order to provide better healthcare as well as satisfactory services and another one is to help the clients to choose what healthcare service will be better for them in order to provide them with the entitled one.
The multisectoral approach can be defined as the collaboration of various stakeholder groups, such as the government, civil society, and private sectors (Sangkala & Gerdtz, 2020). There are several policies regarding multi-sectoral health policies such as, to provide a quality of healthcare to all the citizens. These policies will be crucial for Liya, as it needs proper treatment as well as health care services at an affordable price. This will help Liya to reduce her barrier by promoting a better healthcare system. The functional role of the community nurse will influence Liya to stick to proper medications. This influence will strengthen her confidence to stand for her family as well as encourage her husband to face the challenges boldly.
Discussion of the third component of the study is to analyse as well as evaluate the factors to empower the patients and their families to take charge of their health care (Shirley, 2020). Moreover, health care shifts in the UK are based on a patient-centred model to enhance their health care service operation as well as to help people to be more precious regarding their health. Every healthcare professional interacts with their patients regarding their critical health conditions and also suggests seeing different physicians for each organ. Liya is suffering from diabetes, asthma, obesity; therefore she needs to see different doctors for her proper treatment. In this regard, the three different doctors should be placed in an organisation to get a better understanding of her treatment (Suprapto & Lalla, 2018). The community health care nurse of Liya, should follow some strategies to empower her regarding Self healthcare, such as enabling, and mediating to influencing about the selfheath care by providing guidelines and importance of healthcare.
It can be concluded as a brief discussion of community health nurses and their various field work functional works to mitigate the issues of patients and their families. According to the case study, Liya faces the challenges of two SDH factors such as health care and economic stability, which is considered with the SDH factors and discussed briefly. At the third portion, factors to empower the patients and their families to take charge of their health care are elaborated.
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