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Quality Assignment Sample

Introduction

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For this, the "Quality Assurance" and "Quality Control" check process has been described. In conducting this, the boiler pressure vessel type has been referred to. Therefore the quality control process can be described as steps through which a business or company seeks in ensuring the quality of the product. In maintaining the quality, the preferred maintenance process and improvement activity has been accounted for. By involving the technical personnel, a specific type of benchmark quality has also been maintained. The quality of the related testing methods has been accounted for the statistical "significant variations". In relating to this, the process of quality assurance can be discussed as the systematic process, which is also ensuring qualitative service assurance. Therefore the "agile QA process" can be started with the inception of different software development "life cycles". From the initial stage of design, along with the development phase and up to the final testing method, the QA process application has been related to the application's hardening. The boiler pressure vessels are generally a container designed to keep the liquids, vapors, and gases at significant pressure.

Discussion

In viewing the types of pressure vessels, heat exchangers have been discussed, which is the most used second type of pressure vessel. Therefore these are involved in the releasing of heat through the mediums. For both processing and manufacturing plants, these are essential. This common type can be used within the various chemical applications through shell and tube. In finding the primary testing type, there are mainly two types that can be preferred. For the evaluation of the performance, those two types can be included as pneumatic test and hydrostatic test. Therefore the main difference can be observed as the hydrostatic test uses the water as the test medium. In contrast, pneumatic types are considered as non-flammable types through which basically non-toxic gas is produced.

Along with the rising concern about pneumatic testing, it can be referred to in such cases where the fracture has occurred in the time of testing and leading to the explosion (Balakrishnan and Kanimozhi, 2017). In relation to this, the hydrostatic testing has been seen in a safer way where the water volume has been increased in a safer way, but it depressurized with a sudden action. In view of the situation, pneumatic testing has been preferred as a viable option. Therefore the hydrostatic testing has been involved in the filling of the vessel entirely with the water. After that, by pressuring it entirely up to one and half times, the design pressure limit has been checked along with finding out any type of presence leakage. In adding the fluorescent dye into the water, identifying any type of leakage can be easily defined (Esouilem et al., 2019).  This testing can damage the pressure vessel in case of the pressurization of water which can cause the smaller fraction is spreading rapidly.

Inspection

Concerning this, the pressure vessel testing or inspection can be involved in the multiple non-destructive tests through which it can be ensured with the pressure vessel integrity. Therefore the newer type can be replaced with the previously installed types, which need to be repaired. From the past application, it had been seen that most of the pressure vessel had been over- pressurized, which sometimes can be exploded. According to the ASME format, these types of problems had been detected. In consideration of the specification, a preferred way has been chosen in the way of manufacturing and maintenance. Within the US, the ASME standard has been used for the manufacturing of pressure vessels. Apart from this, each country has maintained its own standards of manufacturing and quality checking. In viewing the standards, two specific types have been referred to, which a manufacturer needs to be aware of (sciencedirect.com, 2021).

  • “ASME Section VIII”

This has been covered with both "fired and unfired" type of pressure vessels in covering with the requirements. In considering the design process and finding the fabrication use, the process of testing and inspection needs to be used along with the specific certification techniques.

  • API 510

Therefore, one needs to be about the "API 510" also. This is a basic inspection code of the "American Petroleum Institute". By specifying the alterations, inspection and various activities, the process can be carried out with these pressure vessels and 'pressure-relieving devices".

Figure 1: Pressure Vessel Inspection

(Source: https://thermopedia.com/content/5479/PreVF2.gif)

Therefore the hydrostatic testing has been involved in finding the design limit and finding the leakage. In adding the fluorescent dryer into the water, the process has been seen much easier in identifying leakage. In pressurizing with water, the pressures can also be caused by a minor fracture, which can spread more rapidly.

Apart from this, in the time of manufacturing, the employees also need to maintain all types of relevant standards in the time of design and building of boiler pressure vessels. There is a need that can be found through the way of conformity. This could be complied with if each of the pressure vessels which are entered the market is safe. In accounting for this, the quality inspection needs to be considered (Tanli et al., 2017). The pressure vessel can be employed in meeting the "pressure vessel" testing requirements through the different testing process. After moving from the initial manufacturing stage, the testing of the application can be undergone in making specific impairments or changes. After making the change, the product needs to be rechecked in maintaining its standards. In viewing the industry application of the pressure vessels, the product is true to be worked at the specific working order, which cannot pose a threat. The quality assurance process has been described within the defined cycle, which is also known as the PDCA cycle. In referring to this, this process can be known as plan, "do", "check", and act.

Methods

In maintaining the internal pressure and not allowing the materials to leak out, the pressure vessel needs to be structurally sound well. Therefore, the testing needs to be ensured in not allowing the pressure vessels that did not contain any types of flaws like cracks, punctures, or loosely connected types, which can not affect the efficacy. These have been categorized under the "non-destructive examination" (NDE) type in viewing the process.

  1. “Liquid Penetrant Test'' (PT): The process has been involved in checking flaws of the pressure vessel which are open towards the surface. At first, the inspector flowed under the category of thin liquid into the possible "flaw". This can be known as the penetrant. Basically, a penetrant has been sprayed over, and time needs to be taken for soaking (Kiseleva, 2021). Therefore the tester can add the "fluorescent chemicals" into the penetrant, which is more visible in the ultraviolet light. After drying the penetrant, the left amount needs to be wiped from the surface. Then the developer has seeped into the cracks. As the coming out of the penetrant, the problem magnitude has been revealed. In using this testing on welded seams, this is also used in the pipes or bars.

Figure 2: Liquid Penetrant Test

(Source:https://www.nuclear-power.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/NDT-Liquid-Penetrant-Testing.png)

  1. Radiographic Test (RT): The radiography process can be able to detect many flaws on the surface. Basically, this is a volumetric report which is able to detect issues inside the vessels. In using the X- rays or gamma, the inside picture can be seen. Therefore the discontinuity, holes and other discontinuities can be seen with the decreased densities. Along with the attenuation of X-ray, this can be loaded into the more considerable exposure on the film. Open voids can appear in the radiographic image, but minor cracks can be elusive in this case. Ionizing radiation ty[pe can be dangerous in a few cases. So the profession needs to be conducted for experimenting in finding out defects.

Figure 3: Radiographic Testing

(Source: https://whatispiping.com/radiographic-testing)

  1. Visual Test (VT): For the general view of the vessel's condition, this testing has been found as most applicable. For this type, the surface needs to be precise. The inspectors can be examined on the basis of observation. In focusing on the welded seams, the appendages can be accounted for along with the pressure vessel's length. Therefore different observational issues like corrosion, hydrogen blistering and cracking. In viewing the visual inspection, this can reveal multiple problems. Though the non-destructive testing methods are more accessible in revealing the pressure vessel's function and other activity.
  2. Magnetic Particle Test” (MPT): The magnetic current has been run through the pressure vessel for this process. In using the prod method, the electric current flows in between the contact probes. In the case of the shell's defect, the "flux leakage field" can be seen through its appearance (Muangnak et al., 2021). Usually, the defects will be interrupted into the floors of magnetic current, which causes magnetism in spreading out of them. Therefore the flux leakage became visible in spreading "ferromagnetic elements" from the vessel. In case of wet suspension of the liquid with the help of "dry magnetic particle test", they fluoresce under the "black light". The metal particles are attracted towards the "magnetic currency", which is revealing about the better dimensions of the flows within the 'flux leakage fields".

Figure 4: Magnetic Particle Test

(Source: https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images)

  1. Ultrasonic Testing (UT): This can be considered as the volumetric method. This can be used in the sounding of waves in measuring material thickness or identifying similar defects. Therefore an "electric system' ' has been induced with the higher- voltage of electrical pulses. As of the espousing process, a transducer has been used in creating their "ultrasonic energy". Therefore the sound waves are flowing through the material, which is identifying discontinuity. As a result, some amount of energy will be reflected back. In viewing this, the testing needs to be read with real-time activity (Wang et al., 2019).  In a recording of the signals, the UT components have also designed.

Advantages and Disadvantages

The manufactures and the tests need to priorities the maintenance of operation while focusing on the people's safety. Even the material made on the pressure vessel is not poisonous, but as the dangerous gases flow through the system, this could result in exploitation. For the unplanned downtime, the operation cost of the pressure vessel can be higher. For a safer working environment, employees are responsible as of the fault of pressure which can comprise the environment. Therefore the regular inspection of the vessels can result in the prevention of dangerous failure. In finding the frequency, the different types of factors can be inspected (Gonçalves et al., 2017). Involving the visual inspection, evaluation of thickness and the analyzing of the stress, the results need to be compared as of the "pressure releasing valves '.

Therefore the advantages have been discussed as -

  1. This has resulted in better asset and resource management. In relating with the quality assurance, both the money and time can be saved,
  2. The actual application and sustainable use of the testing helps in the better application,
  3. For the "top-down organizational process", this system can be allowed through the more streamlined and efficient production of the service,
  4. For the pressure equipment along with the related components, the qualified experts have been certified along with the extensive experience,
  5. The global customer need can be fulfilled by providing a quick response about the needs,
  6. Expert knowledge can be introduced through the different standardized, code and regulation.,
  7. For developing o the pressure vessel, the preferred assistance can be accounted with the quality assurance activity

The disadvantages can be described as -

  1. Both the quality assurance and control can be caused by the higher manufacturing costs,
  2. The testing of the manufactured pressure vehicle is a time-consuming process. The whole process has required many techniques and time. Therefore  for the detection of errors, the staffs need to be adequately trained for performing quality assurance,

Checking

Therefore, the quality testing can be involved through the quality from which is based on "Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code requirements" for the related checking process. Through the comprehensive 'Quality Control Program", the tasks need to be governed with the "SFI designs" and fabricated with "ASME pressure vessels" (Plebani et al. 2017). The steps which are involved in this can be referred to as -

  • Requiring of the authorized inspector,
  • "Material Control" activity,
  • Using design drawing and engineering,
  • “Non- destructive” inspection,
  • Involving weld procedures, log and certified welders
  • Documentation
  • Making repairing and alteration according to guidelines,

For the quality assurance programming, the process needs to have lied within the multiple steps, which are -

  1. Conformity of the design,
  2. Installation and fabrication surveillance,
  3. “Material conformity”,
  4. Weld qualification study,
  5. Baseline inspection

In gathering the reports or the related information, the process needs to be documented within the "online" system, which is also considered an automatic number of the program.

Need

The product inspection process has been involved through multiple steps. In considering the buyer's criteria and maintaining the quality of the product, the quality checks both through control and assessment are necessary for all types (Kroll and Buchris, 2018). In finding the importance of quality control, this can be referred to as -

  1. This is helping to deliver of "defect less merchandise",
  2. The number of complaints will be significantly reduced as of the decrease of shipment,
  3. In figuring out the defects from the initial phase of production, this has been ensured the quality of the end product type,
  4. Therefore it will help in achieving customer "self-containment", which will establish customer loyalty,

For measuring the quality assurance techniques, the "ECTION VIII" can be accounted as the measuring of the pressure vessel type. On the basis of the design, the requirements have been met with the design application. Therefore, the different design applications can be preferred through the testing, fabrication, certification, and inspection processes (Chauveau, 2018). As per the operating criteria, both the internal and external pressure needs to be measured accordingly. Such types of vessels might be fired or unfired category types. The pressure obtained from the external sources is found through the heat application from either direct or indirect type of sources or combining those two items. In finding with the defined requirement, various types of classes can be applied through "pressure vessel construction". Therefore, in relation to the fabrication method, forging, welding and brazing can be accounted for.

Figure 5: Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

(Source: https://www.tuv-nord.com/fileadmin/_processed_/a/2/csm_asme_4f7668ebc1.png)

For these referred types of division, both the mandatory and the "non-mandatory appendices' ' can be complied with the additional design criteria. The inspection and examination standards need to comply with the acceptance standards' non-destructive methods (Szybi?ski and Romanowicz, 2019). Within the process of ASME certification, the rules need to be met with the preferred criteria, and therefore the mark can be scored bunder5 the "U, UM and UV" designators. In meeting with the materials, the design and non-destructive study can be complied with more rigorously than the other types. Therefore higher design stress can be reflected over the case of the higher stress design through which the intensity values can be permitted. In permitting higher intensity of stress designed values, the rules can be applied through the "human occupancy" of the pressure vessels which are under t6he diving industry. The rules are pertaining to the certification of their ASME through which the number mark can be included with the designators. The requirements can also be applicable for the pressure vessel operating, either considering the value of external or internal pressure type (Blanc-Vannet et al., 2019). By evaluating the value and considering the limits, the rules need to be pertained with the certification mark as per the designator criteria included in the system. 

Conclusion

Pressure vessels are categorized under the various container types, which are designed in holding the vapors, liquids or different types of gasses. In measuring the higher pressure, the value can be limited up to the "15 psig ''.  Therefore the examples can refer to the use of boilers in different industries. Here the boiler pressure vessels application, use and involved process have been evaluated. The quality assurance has been accounted for in checking the about the developed product item as per the appropriate use of vessel type. By maintaining the process and standards, the products also have been developed with the periodic basis application. As of the manufacturing testing, quality control can be used as the most important impact. In maintaining the accuracy and precision, the resulted data indeed to be met with the ASME standards. With the preferred application, the quality control process has been worked properly with the better flaws of different analytical processes. Therefore the "boiler pressure vessel" inspection has been shown through the non-destructive tests, which are ensuring the integrity of the installed "pressure vessel" equipment.


Reference List

Journals

Balakrishnan, B. and Kanimozhi, B., 2017, May. Design and Analysis of Boiler Pressure Vessels based on IBR codes. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 197, No. 1, p. 012045). IOP Publishing.

 Blanc-Vannet, P., Papin, P., Weber, M., Renault, P., Pépin, J., Lainé, E., Tantchou, G., Castagnet, S. and Grandidier, J.C., 2019. Sample scale testing method to prevent collapse of plastic liners in composite pressure vessels. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy44(17), pp.8682-8691.

Chauveau, D., 2018. Review of NDT and process monitoring techniques usable to produce high-quality parts by welding or additive manufacturing. Welding in the World62(5), pp.1097-1118.

Esouilem, M., Bouzid, A.H. and Nadeau, S., 2019. Accident causes involving pressure vessels: A case study analysis with STAMP model.

Gonçalves, W.F., de Almeida, C.B., de Araújo, L.L., Ferraz, M.S., Xandú, R.B. and de Farias, I., 2017, June. The influence of human factors on the software testing process: The impact of these factors on the software testing process. In 2017 12th Iberian conference on information systems and technologies (CISTI) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.

Kiseleva, V., 2021. Mechanical standard comparison between Russian and European standards for Reactor Pressure Vessel.

Kroll, E. and Buchris, E., 2018. Weight reduction of 3D-printed cylindrical and toroidal pressure vessels through shape modification. Procedia Manufacturing21, pp.133-140.

Muangnak, N., Aimmanee, P. and Makhanov, S., 2018. Automatic optic disk detection in retinal images using hybrid vessel phase portrait analysis. Medical & biological engineering & computing56(4), pp.583-598.

Plebani, M., Sciacovelli, L. and Aita, A., 2017. Quality indicators for the total testing process. Clinics in laboratory medicine37(1), pp.187-205.

Singh, K., Chattarjee, S. and Pandey, K.M., A Review on Modeling and Analysis of Pressure Vessels.

Szybi?ski, B. and Romanowicz, P.J., 2019. Optimization of flat ends in pressure vessels. Materials12(24), p.4194.

Tanli, M., Jiang, Y., Wang, X., Wang, Y. and Peng, R., 2017, April. Research on global structure for digital quality testing based on manufacturing factory. In 2017 2nd International Conference on Electrical, Automation and Mechanical Engineering (EAME 2017). Atlantis Press.

Wang, M., Tang, P. and Ling, Z., 2019, December. Comparison and Analysis of Domestic and Foreign Standards for Safety Assessment for In-Service Pressure Vessels Containing Defects-A Case Study of Drum of Utility Boiler. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 677, No. 3, p. 032043). IOP Publishing.

Online Article

sciencedirect.com, (2021), Six Sigma performance of quality indicators in total testing process of point-of-care glucose measurement, Available at:https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352551721000159 [Accessed on: 20.03.2021]

 

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