Introduction - Plant Equipment Design Report of Steam Condenser Assignment Sample
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The condenser and separator is a device that is included in the Process flow diagram (PFD) is used to transfer the heat content from the Styrene mixture vapor into the coolant. Hence the vapor state is converted from the vapor state to the liquid state with the help of a condenser. The separator is finally used to separate the water and liquid crude styrene as the liquid state in the system. More than one option of chemical engineering design must exist in the first chapter. The first chapter will discuss the three contents based on the flow diagram process. Flow diagram process is a type of framework that elaborates the relationship between two factors: major components and industrial plants. Flow diagram processes are often used for chemical purposes to improve a model are noted for professional looking diagrams with expandable detail. On the other hand, pipeline and instrument diagrams are more mechanical and to communicate with diagrams that speak several roles. Process of flow charts is based on the study of process improvement, to develop processes, planning projects etc. Basic design specification has been implemented through the report. So the first chapter will discuss the introduction of a process flow diagram with specific content, and how to be equipped in the design process.
1.2 Aims and objectives
The support with the case study of the steam condenser plant equipment design report has been implemented through the report file. Workingperformance, components of steam condenser has been presented clearly.
The case study analyzed here is to meet some specific aims and objectives from the detailed analysis -
- To carry out the design and model of the condenser that is used to convert Styrene mixture vapor into the coolant.
- To evaluate the performance of the designed condenser.
- To also carry out the design of the auxiliary equipment that is the condenser.
- To find out the required performance of the separator in the whole plant.
- To estimate the total power of the system.
1.3 Design Basis/specification
Here the design is to be carried out on the vapor condenser that will be used to convert Styrene mixture vapor into the coolant as in a liquid state. The auxiliary equipment that is the separator will also be designed that will be used to separate the water and liquid crude styrene state of the system. The vapor condenser is a device that is used to condensate the vapor state of the system into a liquid state by lowering its temperature. The case study and analysis will be used to evaluate the performance of the process flow system and also to calculate its required power (Baniya et al 2021). The cost of estimation is also required to be evaluated after the final analysis of the system. This study evaluates the performance characteristics of plant equipment of steam condensers. Through this design process, achieving the low pressure at the outlet of the turbine of steam, it supplies pure feed water to the hot well.
Specification of steam condenser plant is considered:
Figure 1: The basic design of Steam Condensing plant
The vapor condenser is a heat transfer device that is used to transfer the thermodynamic heat from the vapor state of the system to the final liquid state. The vapor condenser is used to extract the latent heat of vaporization from the vapor and hence converts it to the liquid state. Here the vapor received by the condenser may be in the superheated or saturated form (Tontu et al 2018). The mixture here used is the Styrene mixture vapor whose temperature is high and then the condenser is used to extract the latent heat of vaporization from the vapor and then lowers its temperature to convert it into the liquid form.
The separators are used to separate gas or vapor from the liquid and also from one liquid to another liquid. These separators are used to extract the liquid from the system in the pure form so that no other liquid traces will remain in the outlet of the condenser (Zamuruyev et al 2018). Here the separator is used to separate the crude from the water. The separator generally uses gravity force to separate the liquid from the system. The density of the water is always higher than the liquid styrene form so it can easily be separated from the system.
Converting the “CRUDE STYRENE VAPOUR” into a liquid state”
Styrene is a found naturally liquid substance that is utilised to manufacture a range of considerably strong, bendable, and light weight items. The styrene monomers, also known have“ethynylbenzene”, “vinylbenzene”, and “phenylethane” is the precursor to polyurethane and other renowned copolymers. The manufacture of styrene and its various uses is a major aspect of the world economy, and it contribute to the improvement of life by producing more order to harness, cost-, and achievement goods.
This significant substance is largely utilised in the manufacture of polystyrene, a well-known thermoplastic polymer with a high formability. It also is believed that polystyrene accounts for more than half of all styrene manufactured. About 20% of the remaining amount is used to make elastomers, curing agent resins, and polymer microemulsion, 15% has been used to make polyamide styrene (ABS) but also styrene-acrylonitrileacrylonitrile (SAN) nanocomposites, 10% is used to make expanded styrene (EPS), or the remaining amount is used to make diverse polyols and specialty contouring.
Styrene and styrene-based goods can be found in a variety of everyday products. Some of the most typical applications of polystyrene by-products are illustrated here.
1.4 PFD of Equipment Being Designed
The process flow diagram of the vapor condenser is designed to show all of its vapor condensers, flow rate and all the vapor condensers with separators in connection. The two types of analysis are used to carry out the detailed analysis of the vapor condensers. These analyses are the primary and secondary analysis that are discussed in detail. On the process flow diagram, there are several pieces of information that must be included in the design process. Symbols of the process technology should be accomplished by chemical engineering. Various symbols such as drum or vertical vessel, horizontalvessel, tubularreactor, three phase decanter, opentank, tubular reactor or coil etc are introduced in the designed process of PFD equipment steam condenser. It is known as the symbol of process technology.
Figure 2: The Various symbols for reactors, vessels and tanks.
Symbols of heat exchanger equipment such as heat exchanger basic symbol, electricheater, coolingtower, finned tube exchanger etc are accomplished the utility streams that enters and exit heat exchanger, and also pressure temperature(Boretti et al 2021).Below the flow diagram are showing the symbol of heat exchanger equipment that is also PFD of equipment being designed.
Figure 3: PFD diagram of condenser with separator
The symbols of fluid handling are quipped between steam and other processes. Here, Process flop diagrams are equipped when the condensers are being designed. Process flow diagrams are in addition the symbols of fluid handling equipment.
So, the process flow diagram is an essential function for a steam condenser. It conveys the process and the different components-therefore it is essential to design very well manners. Steamcondenser such as surface condenser is not be completely done without process for symbols (Bubelis et al 2019). More details are increasing the information about the topology, equipment information etc.
The design of the Chemical Engineering
2.1 Main Equipment selection process
The selection process is the very major process of the overall project paper. Nature of design is a general discussion in this chapter. The subject of the chapter chemical engineering design selection of main equipment is equal to other branches of engineering, the activity of creative designand taken the appropriate activities by an engineer. Selection arte set the outer boundary of possible design, and showing below figure.
Figure 4: Design Constraints
The condenser used here is the vapor condenser that is used to condense and lower the temperature of the crude styrene vapor into the coolant that is separated by the separator which extracts the crude liquid styrene and separates the water. The data needed to be taken here is a condensed mixture of the fluid properties as a function of temperature, viscosity, latent heat and specific heat type of properties. The pressure is also one of the most important data that is used as a reference property for analyzing the crude styrene flow through the condenser. The other data needed to analyze the flow of crude styrene vapour from the condenser are the inlet temperature of the styrene and also the temperature of the coolant. The data that will be calculated based on this is the outlet temperature and pressure of the coolant that is flowing from the outlet of the condenser.
The design base is shown as another major factor in this chapter, because accurate settings of the design basis are showing the final result at a specific time. With information on constraints that will influence the structural framework such as: The systemic units to be used, local company design, various codes must be followed that are indicating the various requirements of the design, and last one is detailed of raw materials that are available.
Figure 5: The overall selection process design
Dehumidification condensers lower the amount of water that must be pumped and the amount of chemical treatment required by cooling towers. When compared to a wind condenser, an evaporate condenser demands less coil area and circulation to refuse the same energy, or better operational inefficiencies can be attained by working at a lower saturated steam.
In the case of engine conversion various high pressure generate in the system. In the internal portions of engine combustion is takes place. Water treatment is an important part of the process. Working fluid converts its power in force, different types of motions as well as mechanical energy. Generally working fluid is also called coolant. In the case of liquid power, the functioning liquid is fundamentally a gas or fluid that moves power, movement, or mechanical energy. In hydrodynamics, water or water powered liquid exchanges power between pressure driven parts, for example, pressure driven engines incorporated into pressure driven siphons, water driven chambers, water driven machines, water powered drive frameworks, etc. At pneumatics, pressure driven liquid is air or one more gas that moves power between pneumatic parts, for example, blowers, vacuum siphons, pneumatic chambers, and pneumatic engines. Pneumatic frameworks additionally store energy on the grounds that the functioning gas is compressible. Gas warms when packed and cools when extended. This irregular hotness siphon is seldom utilized. Some gases gather into a fluid when packed and bubble when tension is diminished.
The water powered liquid of a hotness motor or hotness siphon is a gas or fluid generally alluded to as a refrigerant, coolant, or working gas, which changes over nuclear power temperature change into mechanical energy or the other way around essentially through stage changes or the hotness of pressure and extension. Instances of stage changes are water steam in steam motors and chlorofluorocarbons in most steam pressure refrigeration and cooling frameworks. Instances of stage free models are hot air motor air or gas like Sterling motors, thermoplastic cooling air or gas, for example, gas cycle heat siphons, and nickel titanium in model hotness motors.
Selection of main equipment is done by the process flow (Hamilton et al 2020). It defines the stages of production process, quality of raw material. Design of pipeline is the quantity of equipment and materials flow through the process. It included the determination of the sizes of the design and the quantity of materials.
The information of process design at sources
A selection of process design methods are listed below stages. Typical timing of materials, engineering man hours and construction are based on the selection of main equipment. Has much information about chemical information processes that introduce the physical property. Rate of application of engineering man hours is also introducing the graphical diagram.
Figure 6: The Rate of application of engineering man hours by the specific function that are introducing the project engineering and design engineering.
Selected Main equipment are listed below:
Condenser is also a type of heat exchanger that is used to condense the vapor state of the crude styrene into the liquid styrene as a coolant. Take true consideration is the generic form which is the process stream in both shell side and tube side. In these factors heat is exchanged from one end to another end. The chemical engineering site, the cooling water inlet by the hot temperature is ranging from too high.
Mainly it is described systematic factors one stages to another stages. Two processes will be considered in this chapter: cooling and heating process (Lee et al 2021). So in this exchanger they introduce both processes. Fluid particles are changes at separated way and mixing or direct contact. Huge amount of using used in natural gas processing, “airconditioning”, “chemicalplants”, “power stations” etc.It is derived at three factores and due on the flow arrangement: Exchanger of parallel flow,exchanger of heat at counter flow and cross flow heat exchanger. First is parallel flow heat exchanger, this is introduced the flow of the fluid as parallel to one another to other side. Incounter flow heat exchanger are described the fluid fluids enter the exchanger form opposite ends. The last one is cross flow heat exchanger. In these stages the fluid travels roughly perpendicular to one another through due to the exchanger.
A pump device is that moves the fluids such as gases, liquids by robe mechanical actions. Actually the pump works as it converts electrical energy into hydraulic energy. Classified into three major groups based on their methods they used to move the fluids(Lombardi et al 2019). Operate by some mechanism and calculate energy to perform the mechanical form or mechanical work moving the fluids. It serves a range of applications such as pumping water from wells etc.Positive displacement pumps and negative displacement pumps introduced the chemical engineering process. In positive pumps move the trapping fluid by volume into the discharge pipes.
The filtration of the pump is an important features for gained maximized and minimized maintenance expenses.Refers the components joints arte elaborate the systemiclife of the remove solids undesirablethe terms of the “filter” are more applied on the components in the discharge side.
The system of Pipeline Design
3.1 The diameter of Optimum pipe
The condensed tube diameter is chosen with also confirming the tube assembly replacement process. The diameter, as well as the heat transmission surfaces, is excessively large. Over dimensional factors and increasing construction costs are also driving this trend. Because of the ideal nozzle is too small and the pressure inside the fluid, the water runs quicker through the pipes tubes, causing the pipes to burst.
In this point, taking economic optimization into care is more appealing. These methods have been tested to the simplest and most effective ways in terms of results. Minimizing the generation of waste rate per unit surface area are of a rectifier tube and limiting the creation of entropy while having a high unit are some of the easiest techniques. Some models of mathematical expression using balance and heat flow are rectified to the pipe diameter (Riyanto et al 2021). A detailed description of the condenser model and changes of pipe diameter in the inner section and also it is followed by a change of their thickness.
For the study of the condenser characteristics are simplified but the optimum diameter are useful to analyzing the pipeline system design.
3.2 Material construction of pipe
The materials construction of pipe selection of the turbine and the technology are considered in this paper. Based on the important components it is performed and it checks the related materials properties. The basic materials for manufacturing of the steam condenser pipe components are considered as the steel due to their strength and sustaining loads in high temperature and pressure. Difference between components subjected to pressure of steam and high temperature. External loading and parts of different objects are influenced by the chemical. Most of the cases steel is used to manufacture pipes.
Steel pipes seamless
The mechanical properties and relevant temperature of the steel are induced within the condenser component. The yield strength of the steel is 250 MPa for placing into the steam condenser designing and some other pressure of the tube for operating at high temperature.
There are three quality factors of the pipes that have been concluded to the area of the applications.
I - For the change in temperature under the pressure of the pipes. This pressure rises up to 32 bars respectively and the temperature will reach upto 400 degrees C evaluated
II - For changes and transfer fluid from one end to another end within the pressure of 32-80 bar and this pressure is based on the temperature around 400-450 degrees C.
III - Transferring the fluid under the pressure is increased upto 80 bar. This above pressure is developed through the temperature at 450 degrees C.
Here, the design of working conditions,pressure and temperature fall into two main categories. This category also consists of two quality sections.Quality of steel which are manufactured for seamless pipes, and its operating temperature and pressure will be defined by standard of “EN 10216-2:2014” (P235GH,P245GH etc.).Experimental investigation are recommended additional required for certain categorized of the steel quality. During the acceptance of pipe diameter, depending on the type and checking the quality of the surface could be done in these stages.Materials construction is verified based on the tension strength in the terms of temperature, and Yield stress variation in terms of temperature.
Figure 7: (a) in terms of variation of strength tensile with temperature (b) Stress of Yield in terms of temperature
Selections of thickness at the wall, weld ability of base materials, energy abilities of the procedure of welding are the structure of economic justifications. Numerical analysis of the most responsible at the tube changes the cross sectional area. So the materials construction of the pipe is concluded very well.
3.3 Standard pipe sizes
Standard pipe sizes are the crucial aspect of steam system design. Condensers of steam are detailed on the standard schedule, materialscost, diameter (internal and external), and various factors.
Here first derived the international piping standard of steam condenser.Stand of the pipe sizes are existing around the all stages, but due to the global factors at American institute are categorized in perfect scheduled number. Scheduled numbers of pipes are linked with pressure rating. There are eleven schedules ranging from 10 to 160. For the normal size piping at a steam condenser 150 mm, It is called standard weight. The importance of pipeline sizing is the most attractive part in this stage. Objective of fluid distributions is to supply the fluid at accurate pressure to the point of use.
Bernoulli's equation is used in the pipeline sizing for liquid factors that is given by -
P1 + (1/2) ?v1^2 + ?gh1 = P2 + (1/2) ?v2^2 + ?gh2
Here P1, P2 = Pressure at inlet and outlet of the pipe
v1, v2 = Velocities at inlet and outlet of the pipe
h1, h2 = Height of the pipe from the ground at the inlet and out.
Here inlet parameters are defined as abbreviation 1 and outlet parameters is defined as abbreviation 2.
Pipeline sizing for liquid factors is discussed through Bernoulli’s theorem stated above (Murmanskii et al 2020).The flow of the fluid is affected by the friction resistance in the pipe. Below pictures are derived the more energy at point one then point two.
Figure 8: Pipe in friction due to the flow of the fluid
Total energy of a flowing fluid to energy changes are expressed as either the factors of heat loss. This heat loss is another name for specific energy loss. Without being able to consider the pressure losses is not very useful. Pressure losses will; occur in particular factors at different surroundings. So the total mechanical energy due to friction at the standard pipe sizes carries a steady flow of fluid.
3.4 Valve and Pipe fitting
Valve and pipe fitting are the general guidance and are the most important factors. Low pressure at 15 psig and high pressure steam above 15 psig are considered at general purpose. Valve and pipe fitting for low pressure steam and condensate returns will be based on the various tables. Fitting pipe and pressure reducing valve will not be higher than the ranges. This higher at minimum ranges are not delivered for necessary flow.
It is fitting with velocity and this velocity does not exceed 8000 to 12000 fpm. Next is steamer any condensate pipe system that is not being used properly. Older system scheduled for reconnection should be changed to two pipe systems. The final fitting will be considered at return piping shall be sized at dry return. Pressure reducing valve are serving the bypass mines. These bypass lines are not required in all cases. Pipe, their all sizes are considered at carbon steel, SCH40, ASTM A53 etc. Below the pipe materials tables are described.
Figure 9: Piping Material Table
3.5 Isometric drawing of pipeline
Isometric views of the main stream pipeline are prompt closure of stop valves in front of the turbine. Isometric drawings are the basic overview of the steam system. This typical modern package is powered by the accurate burner which sends heat into the tubes of the boiler. Here discussing the view of hot gases the burner passes in backward direction and forward up to three times that are the very important features in the chapter. Through a series of tubes are to gain the transferring heat at maximum level. When water reaches the saturation temperature, then the bubbles are produced and increase the surface of water.
Isometric views are drawn in various parts such as feed water; blow down, level of control, etc. Blow down of chemical dosing will lead to the presence of the solids in the boiler.
Isometric projection in “Auto CAD” selects the plane of isometric view, and presses the F5 key. Isoclines are available for the selection and the top of the isoclines. These isoplanes are adjusted with right and left positioning. So the flat representation of 3d isometric view is the flat representation and method to allow easy drawing.
3.6 Pressure drop
Pressure drops of the pipeline system design are known as the pressure drop. Simple pressure drops are the difference between two points. In these two points are classified fluid carry network. Actual the dropping pressure are major features for safety purposes. Operate safely and efficiently designed to undersized specific application. This application accommodates the pressure drop. In this situation, applying are the several equations. These equations are the calculating pressure drop in the process piping. Below the formula is the calculating pressure drop of the tube.
P (end) =P (start)- F - h + H
P (end) = pressure end of pipe,
P (starts) = pressure starts of the pipe,
h = Elevation (starts end), the difference between elevation at start of pipe and elevation at end of pipe.
H = Head of the pump
Pup head, it is showing the zero at the pump present.
3.7 Property of Data correlations
Improved property data correlations of absorption fluids are major factors of the property of data. Based on measurements are conducted both in external equipment and in working heat pump systems. Although fluid transportation through overfilled pipes is unique in many industries (e.g., sewage, mining, and nuclear), many features remain undeveloped, notably for multiphase and pro flows. In this research, a simple framework for accurately predicting the bulk flow patterns or settling properties of slurries in uncovered conduits is created and empirically confirmed. The tests involve measuring flow rate, flow depth, and the settling condition for two distinct solid concentrations of two different types of non-colloidal dispersion over a wide range of channel grades, “Reynolds numbers”, and Nussle numbers. A technique is described for making a priori estimations of critical erosion velocities, as may be used to advise future network designs and operating to reduce environmental and economic impacts. Advance data of the organization as well as reaction equations should be written as proper way in the manuscript at the places in which they belong. Supporting information is present following the statement and including the additional reference for further information (?íhová et al 2019). So the property of data correlations is to provide additional references to primary literature for further information.
3.8 Design of Main equipment
The major equipment of the turbo condenser shell is designed through all the steam inlet contacts that are connected to the end of the compression stroke. Because of the predetermined dome area, it is split as a longitudinal process. It condenses when attached to tubes. The fast modifications in a state kind are what this contemplating impact is all about. This stage transforms the gas into a liquid. Changing shape refers to obtaining precise results as well as a significant reduction in the volume that causes vacuum in the capacitor. It is preserved as long as possible and kept airtight. A vacuum leaking system is utilized to support the radiator and keep air from entering the system from entering. The tubes are kept cold by the circulation mechanism (Rosner et al 2020).
All steam is connected to a condenser, with exception of the concentration components in the air system. This factor is condensed as well. In chemical engineering processes, air plays a vital role. The recognize and manage in the air is due to piping leakage, valves around shaft seals, and so on. The steam that enters the condenser and is mixed with the design descriptions serves to enhance the design descriptions. The mixture cooled far below condensing system is described as air wet with water vapor passing through the cooling zone. Vacuum, such as steam or jet condenser, removes the saturated air from the condenser.
Air must be removed from the specific program and its order to obtain the correct vacuum maintains the desired vacuum, air must be removed from the specific system and its order. (Taylor et al 2018).
The design of main equipment is derived from the individual's description of parts, and how its work individually that is listed below:
Exhaust connection for the turbine, here the connection is flanged or welded and may be rounded shapes that are rectangular or oval. There is one above exhaust connection linked to the turbine. Some connections can be located on the side of the condenser for axial exhaust turbines.
The plates of the tubes or any kind of solid rods are used for the protection in a particular way. This occurs at high entrance impingement velocity. Supplied as required by design are the main components of chemical engineering processes.
In this condenser shell are required for the defined rectangular body which contains the vacuum space around the tubes.
Supported tube plates…
The supported tube plates are constrained to be provided as intermediate for the tubes between the tube sheets.
It's a storage area with volume sufficient to contain all the making condensate, and it's given the accurate time period (Zhang et al 2020). Basically the normal time period is also specified under the design operating condition. It may depend upon the volume and requirements.
Connecting the bolting and refers to the water supply for cooling.
This connects for bolting to the cooling water return process. It consists of the returning process of the overall chemical engineering processes.
Relief pressure connection….
The relief of pressure connections is either to a sealed relief valve and it will prevent the condenser frame device that being over pressurized. This device is also sized accordingly with specific standards for steam surface latest condenser editions.
The joint shell expansion…
The shell joint expansion process occurred due to differential expansion. It is only for required expantial purpose when expansion crates an over stressed condition as defined by calculations.
3.8.1 Sizing of main equipment and Installation and Operations
Sizing of main equipment and installation are the process of protective covers for shipping damage. Check for any kind of internally and replace the protective covers are to refresh the unit that is going to be placed in storage If the unit are notified the carrier and also intermediate the installation process.
The clearance of the sufficient factors will be provided at one end of the condenser to permit the removal and changes through tubes at the other end. This other end permits the expanding process of tubes. Its units are typically supplied with the specific two support saddles, this is also elongated holes and refries movement based on the thermal expansion. Its unit should be secured with an accurate foundation by bolt attaching saddles. Installation levels require more square connections that can be made without being stressed.
3.8.2 Pressure drop
Understanding the calculating section is the specified pipeline recommended to properly systematic design. Here the pressure drop matters are more frequently asked when the done report paper.
In the mechanical components in piping system changes the elevation are effected on the pumps and creating pressure drop. Starting elevation process under the pipe is lower than its end elevations. For the specific systemic piping processes are calculated the overall pressure by applying the several applications. Sometimes increasing the friction level and pressure drop due to changes in fluid flow or directions.
So when the designed process consists, minimizing the pressure drop, plant engineering should be followed.
3.8.3 Insulation Thickness
Pipe insulation thickness is the very major factor overall in the project paper. Avoiding fundamental calculations by using shortcut methods are important to many applications in the chemical industry. When it comes to designing itself, there are many questions that arise automatically. Two questions come in this thickness matter: Which material should be used and how much thickness is required for pipe insulation purpose. Actually in the chemical industry, three variables are required to find the most economical thickness of an insulation pipe: cost of energy of the pipe, inner diameter of the pipe, and cost of insulation materials. Overall variables are calculated not to be easy, but to determine the most complicated factors of insulation thickness for a pipeline. It is finding the accurate balance between two stages: insulation materials of least amount and energy loss of least amount. Energy loss decreases or increases depending on the thickness of the materials. Thickness of the insulation materials are decreasing. The energy loss will decrease. After increasing the thickness of the material, the energy loss will be increased. So the tedious numerical calculations will be evaluated such as inside and outside temperature, cost of energy, the sizes of the pipeline (inner diameter /outside diameter) etc.
The function of pipe insulation is to provide it with the thickness of insulation to reduce the heat transfer to the outside.
The significance of the transferring heat of energy thermal to and from the surface piping system is known as the conservation of heat. The thickness of insulation provided to the pipeline will help in reducing the wastage of energy to the outside environment in form of heat.
The formation of the moisture and collection on the surface due to some condensation, its overall piping system is called cold insulation.
The thermal expansion in the outer pipe causes the cracks and ruptures in the inside piper surface.
Figure 10: Hot and Cold pipe Insulation
Based on the insulation types are classified into three stages on various parameters like. The thickness of the piping insulation based on three classes
Hot insulation process
In the hot insulation process, high temperature is applied on the hot surfaces are of the piping system. The piping system is to exclude the energy flow from the fluid. It is the aim of the hot piping insulation process as beta conservation. It is usually used for hot insulating materials.
Cold Insulation process
This cold insulation process is used only for the cold surface on the piping system to avoid the heat received from the outside.
The protection of personal Insulation process
The personal protection of the insulation process is to avoid the personal heat from internal and external sources. All piping system surfaces exceed 65 deg C and supplied the protection insulation process. Operating personnel can be left through the system, and operating personnel are exposed.
The insulation types based on the insulation materials factors are derived below stages.
This insulation consists of very small diameter fibers which are divided into the air spaces. Due to the surface, it may be perpendicular or parallel insulated and theory not be linked up together.