Introduction - Phenomenological Study Of Primary School
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The world around us is changing due to increasing globalisation. All the different sectors are undergoing to major changes due to this.With the increasing globalisation the diversity is the workplace is increasing. Managing diversity is not an easy task for any of the nation as one need to focus on developing better strategies for managing diversity in an effective manner. The education system of the nation also needs to make major changes in the strategies that can help them in managing diversity effectively.For managing diversity and addressing the issues related to multiple language speaking population the education institutions are focusing on introducing the concept of multilingual classrooms.This research is to explore the experiences of primary school teachers in multilingual environment and what they observe among children’s behaviour in relation to children’s use of multiple languages. While students are instructed in their local language, they are required to perform in other two languages and this leads to issues in terms of their comprehension.
1. According to primary school teachers, what kind of challenges do children experience while learning a second or third language?
2. How do teachers support children to speak second or third languages? What activities do they include to support in language learning?
3. What sorts of pressures are experienced by teachers while dealing with multilingual setting?
Rationale of the study
With the increasing internationalisation the schools are focusing on teaching different languages to the students as this would help them in increasing their employability in future. When the students are reading and are being taught in different languages then it is essential to understand that what are the different issues that are been faced by them. When these issues would be identified then the teachers can work on addressing these issues and making their teaching more effective. A lot has been researched that bilingualism and multilingualism is adopted due to increasing globalisation so that the students can have better knowledge of multiple languages. Also multiple languages in early years help in cognitive development among children. However, it is really important to better understand how children adapt in this kind of setting in the early years of school.
Education is having a major impact on the life of the individual. It is important for the teachers to pay attention to all the different factors that are affecting education. Language is a significant factor that is having a major impact on education or learning. It can be said that it is essential for the teacher to focus on all the different factors that affect language teaching. Different factors related to multilingual teaching or classroom had been discussed below.
Role of language in teaching
Language plays a major role in the day to day life as it enables the individual to connect and communicate with one another in an effective manner. It can be said that it is essential for the Teachers to understand the role of language in teaching. Acar et. al. (2017) had mentioned in their study that classroom teaching is quite different and the teachers need to play their roles and responsibilities effectively for better teaching. The study had mentioned that the teachers need to connect well with their students while teaching them so that teaching can be made more effective. In support of this Mohammed (2017) had stated that students are having different perspectives towards things. Based on this it is important for the teacher to connect well with them so that they can understand them properly and can teach them properly. The study highlights that language plays a major role in it. The report had concluded that the teachers should have better knowledge related to the local language so that they can teach the students properly. According to this it can be said that language is a significant factor that affects teaching and learning.
Troyan et. al. (2019) had stated that communication and language are the foundational components of education. The report had mentioned the strong interconnectivity between language, communication, and education. The language is a dynamic system of words and symbols that enable individuals to connect with one another. It is significant to understand the role of communication in the education system and its impact on learning. According to this study, all the students are having their language needs and for effective learning, it is essential for the teachers and the entire education system to focus on fulfilling this need.
Lawrence (2018) had cited that in the classroom it is important for the teachers to focus on connecting well with their students by using appropriate manner. The study had mentioned that language is having a major role to play in the curriculum and in the learning process. The researcher had explained that generally the education system emphasis more on using the first language in teaching for making the learning process more effective. The study had highlighted some of the major advantages of using the first language in teaching. The report had explained that when the first language is used it helps the teachers and students to connect well. Also, this helps the students to get involved in the learning process in an effective manner. It also enables the students to be more flexible and creative and this makes them a better students. The report had concluded that it is very important for the teachers and curriculum developers to understand that language is having a major role to play in learning.
In contrast to this Saito et. al. (2019) had mentioned that with the increasing globalization the concept of using the second and third language in education had increased to a greater extent. The study had mentioned in the present business world the globalization had increased to a greater extent and due to this reason, it had become important for the employees to have better knowledge related to different languages. Due to this reason, it is important for the students to have better knowledge related to multiple languages. The study had stated that using the second and third language is quite challenging for both the students and teachers. They face issues in communicating with one another in an appropriate manner and communication gap leads to misunderstandings as well.
Nassaji and Kartchava (2017) had stated that the education systems across the globe need to understand the benefits of learning multiple languages for the students. When the students learn a second language then it helps them in boosting their brainpower and enhances their ability to do multitasking. For an instance when the student is learning a new language or studying in a language other than the mother language then it helps them in developing their skills. From this it can be concluded that multiple language learning is very important. From this, it can be said that it is language is having an influence on different factors related to teaching and learning. Thus it can be said that language is a major component of education and the learning process as well.
With the increasing globalization, the world is changing rapidly and all the different sectors are focusing to become more adaptive for all. The education system is also undergoing major changes so that it can help the students to become better employees in the new and technologically advanced business world. The concept of a multilingual classroom had gained a lot of importance in almost all the different nations. Moreover, it can be said that in the present world multiple languages had become an important part of the education system. According to the study of Fisher et. al (2020), multilingual classrooms are defined as theclassroom that is having learners having more than one language at their disposal. The study had mentioned that the concept of the multilingual classroom is very helpful for the immigrants and the migrants or the refugees. The education instituted across the world needs to pay attention to the concept of multilingual classrooms.
Spottiand Kroon (2017) had mentioned that in the advanced world it is essential for the education system to focus on introducing the concept of multilingual classrooms. The study had highlighted one of the major advantages of the multilingual classroom is that it develop the skills of having the knowledge of multiple languages. In the present competitive world, it is essential for the students to have advanced skills and great knowledge that can help them in gaining a competitive advantage over others. Having knowledge of multiple languages is an important skill that can offer a better competitive benefit to individuals over others at the time of getting jobs. Thus, the study had concluded that multi-language needs to be taught in the schools.
Gopalakrishnan (2020) had stated in their study that multilingual classrooms help the students in developing their cognitive skills in an effective manner. The researchers had explained that when the students are learning different languages then it helps them in developing some of the effective skills and it also leads to brainstorming that in return helps them in boosting their cognitive ability. The study had mentioned that in the present world the education systems need to emphasize Introducing one or two foreign languages in the curriculums in the schools. The report had concluded that the concept of multilingual classrooms is very attractive and beneficial for the students.
Gopalakrishnan (2021) had said in their study that in the present world diversity had increased to a greater extent and this is creating a major difference for all the industries. The study had states that diversity in the classroom had also increased and this had led to the need of teaching multiple languages in the classroom. Due to this factor, the concept of multilingual teaching had gained alot of importance. The report had concluded that it is essential for the educational institutions and teachers to adapt the concept of multilingual teaching for making learning more effective for the classrooms having learners belonging to different backgrounds. For multilingual classrooms it is essential for the schools to focus on having the teachers with effective skills that can help them in teaching different languages to the students in an properly. This also helps them in reducing the pedagogical issues related to language teaching.
Raud and Orehhova (2020) had described the concept of linguistic diversity in Europe. The study had mentioned that different educational institutions had introduced language awareness and multilingual concepts in their curriculum in Europe. The major reason behind this is that due to increasing globalization. Also, the study had stated that the concept of multilingual teaching had been introduced with the objective of developing the cognitive ability and empowerment of the students towards the diverse world. Also, the educational institutions need to work effectively on this then only the expected outcomes can be received. The study had explained in detail that the education institution in Europe are working effectively for offering better training to their employees that is helping them in offering better multiple linguistic teaching to the students. The reportconcludes that the education system needs to focus on developing an effective curriculum and have better teachers who can teach multiple languages in an effective manner.
Ramchander (2020) had mentioned in their study regarding the multilingualism in the schools of South Africa. The researcher had explained that due to the high cultural and linguistic diversity in South Africa there is a need to have an effective education system that can support the diversity. For supporting cultural diversity the educational institutions had started promoting the concept of multilingualism in English and this is helping the south African population to have better knowledge of English and other languages as well. Thus the report had concluded that for the nations with greater culturally diverse populations it is essential to have multilingual classrooms that can help in managing diversity in an effective manner.
Nyimbili and Mwanza (2021) had discussed the inclusion of the home language in the education system. The researcher had argued that if the home language has been used for teaching the students then it will make the learning process more effective. It also mentioned the different benefits of using home language in the education system. According to the study if the students learn in their home language then it helps them in developing some of the academic skills. The study mentioned that by learning in the home language one can develop numeracy skills and cognitive learning skills. It has been concluded that learning in the home language is more comfortable for the students and helps them in developing better academic skills as well.
According to the study of Clifford and Reisinger (2018) the community also plays an major role in the language learning and due to this have coined the term community based language learning. This study suggests that when the education institutes are working on teaching languages to their students then it is important for them to get better support from community. The concept of community based learning had suggested that it is important to involve community so that they can embed the culture and context as well. These factors are essential for the students and when these factors combines with one another then it can help the students in learning the students in an efficient manner.
Challenges faced by children in learning multiple languages
The concept of multilingual classrooms had gained alot of attention in recent decades and due to this reason, there are different challenges had taken place for the children. Khan (2018) had stated that learning multiple languages is not an easy task for the students. The study had stated that according to the data of UNESCO around 40% of the world's population does not receive education in their home languages. The major reason behind this is the different language policies of the nation and also the teachers' training and availability of the resources also play a major role in it. Also, the report of Khan (2018) had highlighted that the minority language speaking students face major educational disadvantages which are having a long terms negative impact on the learning of the students. The report had concluded that it is essential for the education system to focus on addressing this issue in an efficient manner as this is having a major influence on the learning process. It can be said that for receiving the expected outcomes of teaching the students should learn in their own language otherwise they face different challenges.
Sales et. al. (2021) had cited the major issues that are being faced while learning multiple languages from the parents' or family's perspective. The researcher had mentioned that when the students belonging to different socio-cultural backgrounds are learning different languages other than their mother language or the first language then the cultural background of the family affects their learning process. For managing this challenge the family needs to incorporate it with their children so that they can learn a new language.
Rasheed et. al .(2017) had discussions regarding the challenges faced by the students in the multilingual classrooms. The study had stated that there are different factors that are having an influence on the learning process. Among the entire different factors teacher is the important stakeholder that affects the learning process to a greater extent. The study had mentioned that when the teacher is teaching then it is important for them to have better knowledge of the cultural background and language of the students to which they are teaching. If this does not happen then it creates great issues for the students to connect well with their teachers and learn effectively. The study had concluded that it is essential to focus on managing the issues and complexities faced by children in the multilingual classroom.
Brutt-Griffler (2017) had stated that learning a new language is challenging for the student. The study had mentioned that learning different languages or studying in a multilingual setting is very beneficial for the students but it is essential for them to learn the languages in an effective barrier. Communication barrier is a major issue that has been found by the students in bilingual settings. The study had mentioned that the teachers need to communicate well and needs to develop a better understanding with their students then only they can teach them in an appropriate manner. For an instance when the teacher is not having better knowledge related to the home language of the learners then it became easier for them to communicate with them effectively.
Bailey and Marsden (2017) had talk about the benefits of teaching in-home language in multilingual classrooms for young learners. The study had stated that when the teachers are teaching the young students then they face issues in teaching them and making them work accordingly to the instruction given to them. The study has definite that when the teachers communicate well with the primary school students in their mother language then it helps them in connecting well with their students and having effective communication with them. The researcher had argued that when the students are being taught in a second language then it is difficult for them to understand the different concepts in an effective manner. The study had concluded that atleast for primary education the education system needs to use the mother tongue for teaching the students otherwise teaching in a second language can affect their learning process negatively.
Omidire and Ayob (2020) had mentioned the issues faced by the primary school students in multilingual classrooms. The study had cited that primary school students are not having many advanced skills and due to this reason, they face issues in learning through a second or third language. Based on this the study had mentioned that the studies face issues even in understanding the general instruction given by the teachers. Thus it can be said that learning a different language is more complex for primary school students as compared to the elder students.
Tse et. al. (2021) had conducted an exploratory study on the Chinese students for identifying that how the concept of multilingual learning is helping Non-Chinese learners to learn the Chinese language. Due to increasing globalization and migration is also increasing and as a result of it china is having great population belonging to different nations. It can be said that china is having diverse population belonging to different cultural backgrounds. Due to this reason the children face issues in learning Chinese language. The results of the study had suggested that collaborative efforts of family, community and school can help the Non-Chinese students in learning Chineselanguage. It can be said that when educators, community, families and the students’themselves make better efforts then they can learn new language even belonging to different cultural backgrounds.
Challenges faced by teachers in multilingual settings
Teachers are having a major role to play in the learning process of the students. In the multilingual classroom setting the teachers face different types of issues and challenges while teaching different languages to the students. Ticheloven et. al. (2020) had stated that in the multilingual classroom setting majority of the students belong to different cultural backgrounds. Due to the diversity in the cultural background the teachers face issues in connecting well with the students and motivating them to adopt the new language and learn it in an appropriate manner. The study had highlighted that culture is having a major influence on language learning as culture shapes the perceptive of the students towards the different languages. The report had conducted that managing issues related to cultural differences are a major factor that affects teachers in the multiple language settings in the classrooms.
Hsieh et. al. (2018) had conducted a research study on the students for analyzing the issues faced by both the teachers and students in the multilingual classrooms. The research study had included students from 51 primary schools belonging to six different geographical locations. The study had found that the majority of the students are beginners in English language users. This had shown that they are not facing many issues in understanding the general instructions. On the other hand, the results of the interview with the 17 primary school teachers had shown that mother interference, students' attitude towards English, and lack of usefulness or using the English language are the major issues that are being faced by the teachers. Based on this it can be said that the student's attitude towards the second language that had been taught to them is also having a significant influence on their language learning and this is an issue for the teachers. The teachers need to develop a positive attitude among the students towards the English language then only they will be able to teach them in English in an effective manner. Along with this, the interference of the mother language is also a major challenge for the teachers. Generally, the students communicate in their mother tongue and this affects their learning of a new language. From this study, it can be concluded that there are diverse factors that are having a major influence on the teachers in multilingual settings.
Tichelovenet. al. (2021) had focused on identifying the different pedagogical challenges that are faced by the teachers while teaching the students in multilingual classrooms. One of the major challenges for the teacher is the lack of proper communication. The researcher had conducted an interview with the teachers working in multilingual settings. The results of the interview had highlighted that it is required for the teachers to be more polite and patient while communicating with the students and should have to focus on respecting all the languages. The study had mentioned that the teachers need to focus on using effective skills while working in the multilingual setting then only they can teach the students in an effective manner.
Csillik (2019) had mentioned that one of the major challenges that are faced by the teacher is associated with the cultural difference issues. There are different pedagogical issues faced by teachers and the different learning styles are a major issue among them. The teachers need to connect with the students for making teaching much effective and needs to adapt their cultural values as well. The major issue faced by the teachers in understanding the learning styles of the students is based on their cultural differences. The teachers need to motivate the students in an effective manner by encouraging them to focus on trying to learn the new language and communication in it in an efficient manner.
Multilingual classrooms in India
India is a culturally diverse nation and due to this reason, it is having a great diversity in language as well. People belonging to different parts of the nation are having different languages and this makes them a sociolinguistic giant. Multilingualism is present toa greater extent in India and due to this, it reflects the cultural diversity of India. For such a nation managing multilingualism is challenging. Due to the multilingual and multicultural characteristics of the nation, the education system across the nation uses different languages in their curriculum so that the students and learn the concepts in an effective manner.
Erling et. al. (2017) had mentioned in their study that due to the great multilingual society of India the education system faces issues for teaching the students in an efficient manner. In India, the teachers are not following the guidelines properly to use English for teaching the students. The teachers focus on taking support of the Hindi language for supporting the explanations of English textbooks. Along with this, the study had mentioned that the people living in different regions are having different perspectives towards using Hindi or English as a first language for the teaching purpose. The report had concluded that the education system needs to focus on developing an effective educational strategy for managing multilingualism in the nation effectively.
Shah (2013) had conducted a research study for identifying the role of mother tongue in primary schooling of young learners in Punjab. In this study the researcher had focused on analysing the role of mother language in teaching and learning for primary school students in Punjab.In results of the study had revealed that the students belonging to primary school face several issues while learning in different language. For an instance in India, English is being used in the educational institutions but the mother language of majority of the peoples is Punjabi. Due to this the primary school students face issues in understanding as they are not having better learning ability. The study had recommended that in the primary schools of Punjab the government should use their mother language. The young learners need to develop the skills and their mother language can help them in developing learning skills and cognitive ability as well. Thus, it can be said that the primary school students needs to be taught in their mother language Punjabi only for getting better results.
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