Introduction - MGT8077 Project Risk Management
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Change management is recognised as a systematic approach that ensures the transition of an organisation or project from its current position to its desired position. It has been reported that change management allows an organisation or a project to improve accountability, success, management and vision. This literature also claimed that change management in a project ensures its clear vision among employees or team members, which increase their engagement and contribution. In this aspect, this research is going to consider implementing change management strategies.
The purpose of this report is to identify weaknesses in an organisational project and recommend change management strategies. This report is going to focus on the Sydney Metro project to identify its weakness and strengths, which will help this report to figure out its gap and possible areas for change. Besides the Sydney project, this report is going to focus on John Holland group engineering company, which is responsible for the Sydney metro project.
This report is going to focus on the Sydney metro project to develop the business report. Sydney Metro is recognised as Australia's biggest public transport project, which is the longest from North West metro rail to southwest underground station. It has to be mentioned here that Australian engineering company John Holland group and CIMIC group are responsible and associated with the project. The John Holland Group and CIMIC group have an equal share in the project of Sydney Metro. The Sydney Metro project is the first fully automated metro system, which provides ten new metro stations. Total value of the project is AU$8.3 billion, where the share of John Holland Group is around $1.5 billion. The company is responsible for developing twin tunnels under the transport project
Figure 1: Line of Sydney metro project
CEO of John Holland Company ensures that they will buy barges on Sydney Harbour. It has been identified that the use of barges will allow this company to reduce a negative impact on the network of Sydney harbour. Further, the first stage of tunnel 1 was started in 2019.
In the context of the Sydney Metro project, it has been identified that the improper plan may deliver the final project in 2030, which has been planned to deliver in 2024. In addition, cost increment issues are also identified in the Sydney metro project due to developing the CBD station. Besides these, customer experiences, engineering, safety and health challenges are also identified in the Sydney metro project. In the change management aspect, the Sydney metro project has undertaken innovative and critical thinking strategies to mitigate the risk and continue the project operation.
Models, framework and process
Change management is an important aspect in any project that includes a successful design, development and delivery of a project after utilisation of technical or other solutions. Proper decision-making strategy can be termed as an important aspect in a project that supports innovation. The Decision-making strategy includes a change control board as change management is based on large systems such as this project. Proper change in any project helps in achieving the strategic vision at a faster rate along with helping in achieving success at a quicker rate. In contrast, have opined that the effectiveness of program change is sometimes not enough as its effectiveness becomes questionable due to marginal improvement of productivity sometimes. Therefore, as per this project of implementation of the train line under Sydney Harbour, prep change management is required that is done for support the success of the project. As per the outcome from this project, it is identified that a joint venture strategy of project development is done for the completion of this project that is proper change management has made the progress of this project successful in Australia.
Figure 2: Lewin’s change model
A change management model of Lewin’s can be utilised for the success of this project as it includes three essential steps as unfreezing, changing and respective refreezing. The steps include the first implementation of a new system in a project, the adoption of that change by staff and then refreezing such as the closure of any further change, especially after the staff adopt a change. Change is necessary for any project after starting as it includes effectiveness to achieve the goal at a faster rate. Therefore, utilisation of technology-based planning along with advanced machinery has helped in bringing change in this project as mentioned in the selected project work. In contrast, have suggested that change managers can learn things effectively after stepping back to monitor the progress of any project. Therefore, it can be termed that the progress of a project and change management completely depends on different theories among which Levin’s theory is essential to properly maintain the change management process, especially for this rail project.
Proper change management is essential for improving the level of motivation of staff in any project such as this. Motivation increases productivity as well as the effectiveness of skills that can help in maintaining innovation in a project's progress. Work motivation can be considered as an important impulse that appears in any individual whether consciously or unconsciously for the demand of action to achieve any specific goal. A framework such as Herzberg's two-factor theory is supportive enough to determine the change of this project as it includes hygiene factors that include job factors rejected with staff motivations and motivational factors that increase the growth of the motivational level. In contrast, have suggested that motivation is a factor that indicates how an individual employee engages in any exploration or exploitation work. Therefore, as per this critical analysis, it can be considered that this selected project follows the framework of Herzberg's along with a strategy of employee motivation to improve the project progress. The application of this model is effective enough to determine the workability of workers in this rail project in Sydney Harbour.
Managing change to the project
Technology is an important aspect that can help in managing change in the project for improving productivity as well as motivation level of employees. The weaknesses that are associated with this project are cost and time that are major; however, other weaknesses are engineering faults, safety issues for workers and heating issues during tunnel work. Mckinsey’s 7S model can be used here for that indicates three hard elements such as strategy, respective structure and systems whereas four soft elements such as shared values, styles, respective staff and skills[xiv]. The application of this concept is helpful to determine the reason for weakness in this rail project along with possible changes that can improve the prospect of this project. In contrast,[xv] have argued that performance improvement is dependent on these seven factors; however, proper implementation of this collection in any project can be helpful to eliminate unnecessary issues. Therefore, it can be considered from the above argument that this rail project requires the effective application of this concept to determine performance as well as future aspects that will help to make it successful.
Arrangement of well-being enhancement gathering for employees can be helpful to improve the motivation level that is another change manager prices for the success of this rail project as per mentioned. Leadership is an important aspect that can support the progress of this project without any issue. Leadership strategies help in the identification of the key resistance that can spoil the success of a project using which innovation can be implemented to eliminate those resistive powers. Leadership is another important aspect that helps improve the well-being of workers in any large project to improve productivity for faster competition within the deadline. In contrast, have opined that maintenance of a balanced scorecard is beneficial in determining staff performance as well as motivation level through which effective success can be achieved in a project such as this rail project in Sydney. Therefore, it can be considered from the above critical argument that employee motivation is important for which ladders need to implement a proper strategy in any large project management.
Major weakness indicates time management as well as budget management for which better planning is necessary. The success of a project depends on the satisfaction level of customers. However, the success of a project also depends on a work culture in the workplace that helps in maintaining a collaborative environment. Proper work culture in this rail project is effective enough due to proper support from others that has caused successful progress. In contrast, have suggested that the handbook of change managers can be helpful to implement the change process effectively to maintain the workplace environment even after the change. Therefore, it can be considered that the workplace environment is beneficial for the success of this selected project.
This section is going to provide recommendations to the John Holland group for the Sydney Metro project to mitigate its risk and continue the project operation successfully.
- Implement Cost-monitoring tool
It has been identified that the cost and schedule, a monitoring tool is one of the essential tools, which allow a project manager to focus on cost and time aspects in every stage of project progression. This literature stated that focusing on cost and time aspects, allows a project to ensure its growth and success. In the context of the Sydney Metro project, implementation of a cost monitoring tool will help to estimate the cost of the CBD station and it will allow the project manager and John Holland team to change the plan as per the cost plan, which will help the project to mitigate the risk of cost and time delay.
- Execute augmented reality approach
Augmented reality and virtual reality are new trends in construction projects, which allow project managers to reduce cost and time management. This literature also stated that implementation of augmented reality and virtual reality allow project managers to focus on the requirements of the project and implement automated tasks, which ensure the success of the project. Moreover, interruption of human-oriented tasks will also be reduced after implementing augmented reality and virtual reality. Therefore, augmented reality and virtual reality may be implemented in the Sydney Metro project, which reduces the cost increment and time delay issues.
- Improve Lewin’s change management model
Change management is one of the crucial aspects, which ensures the growth of an organisation. In the context of the Sydney project, the issue of cooperation among members may be identified due to improper knowledge of AI and VR. In this aspect, project managers may implement Lewin's change management model. According to this model, an organisation needs to focus on three major areas such as unfreeze, change and refreeze.
Figure 3: Lewin's change management model
- Unfreeze: In this stage, the project manager of Sydney metro project may promote the importance of change in the project and issue of cost and time delay.
- Change: In this step, project manager of the project may include a cost-monitoringtool, AI, and VR tool.
- Refreeze: In the final stage, project managers may promote knowledge and education among people regarding change management approaches.
By focusing on above discussion, it has been identified that implementation of AI, VR in the Sydney metro project are crucial method to ensure success and profit of the project. By keeping an eye on above recommendation, it can be stated that implementation of change management model will help the Sydney metro project to achieve their objective within expected cost and time. In addition, implementation of change management model will help this project to fulfil customer demand followed by government rules and restriction. Change management will help this project to fulfil project delivery and client requirements. Therefore, it can be summarised that implementation of change management model is one of effective strategy for the Sydney Metro project.
This report can be concluded that implementation of the change management approach is one of the crucial and most significant methods to reduce the issue in project management. This report has been focused on John Holland Company to ensure their steps for the Sydney metro project. This report has discussed organisational background. This report has been provided background information regarding the Sydney metro project and responsible organisations associated with the project. Further, this report has been reviewed the literature regarding the research topic. Based on the literature review, this report has been provided recommendations to the responsible organisation for better improvement in future. The report has reviewed the literature to identify weaknesses or gaps in the Sydney metro project. In the next stage, this report has been provided with a set of recommendations to the Sydney metro project to mitigate the gap and ensure and achieve the success of the project.
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