Introduction - Management Accounting Principles
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Tesco Plc is a UK-based multinational company that deals in groceries and general merchandise. The company was founded by Jack Cohen in the year 1919. Tesco Plc falls under the retail industry and it is a public limited company. The Headquarters of Tesco is in England, the UK, and the average yearly revenue of the company is approximately 64 billion. In terms of gross revenue, Tesco is the third-largest retail company across the globe. The organization has around 4 million employees across the globe who work for Tesco.
This report will focus on the accounting aspect of Tesco. The report will be comprised of two scenarios. The principles of management accounting of Tesco will be explained. The role of management accounting and the accounting systems in Tesco will be discussed. The techniques and methods of management accounting used by the organization will also be identified in the report. The integration of management accounting within Tesco, and its benefits for the company will also be a part of the report. The critical reflection of management accounting and its application in Tesco will be discussed overall. Three different tools of management accounting will be compared based on their effectiveness. Specific case studies will be taken as an example and the application of management accounting in the case study will be demonstrated. At the end of the report, the recommendations will also be given to Tesco in regards to its management accounting.
This section/scenario of the report will focus upon different types of accounting systems and their benefits for Tesco. Appropriate accounting techniques will be discussed. Methods for management accounting used in Tesco will be identified. The financial reporting documents of Tesco will be shown with the application of various management accounting techniques. The integration of management accounting with the processes of Tesco will be understood. Also, the financial reports of Tesco will be produced.
P1- Management Accounting and types of management accounting systems
Management Accounting allows Tesco to analyze the deficit of financial services of the company so that the needed development and distribution can be achieved. Management accounting can be described as a process of the creation of the goals of Tesco by identification, measurement, analysis, interpretation, and communication of information to the managers of the company (Honggowati et al, 2017). In Tesco, management accounting focuses on the accounting aspect of Tesco intending to inform the top and middle management about the operations of the organization. In the process of management accounting, the information related to the cost of the products of Tesco which it purchases from suppliers get used. The budget of Tesco is also get used in the process for quantifying the operational planning decisions of the company (Alvarez et al, 2020). Also, the management accountants who perform the management accounting process in Tesco, use the performance reports of the company as well for noticing the differences between the estimated budget and the actual cost results.
Different types of Management Accounting systems
There are various management accounting systems available which the management accountants of Tesco use for making important decisions for the company. These are:
Inventory Management systems: This type of management accounting system helps Tesco in the identification of the amount of stock needed by the company at a particular point in time. The inventory management system estimates the requirement of inventory in Tesco by tracking the purchase and sale of products in the company. Tesco's management accountants use this type of management accounting to ensure that the company always has enough stock so that it can fulfill the demands of customers and also prevent the shortage of stock (Alzoubi 2018). The inventory management accounting system is highly beneficial for Tesco because it allows the management to save money, it improves the cash flow of the company, and it helps to keep the customers satisfied.
Price-optimizing systems: This accounting system uses mathematical programs for calculating the demand at different levels of price. Once it gets done, the data gets combined with the available information on the inventory and cost of Tesco. This system allows the accountants to estimate the prices the organization should keep of its products to improve the level of profitability. This accounting system allows Tesco to tailor the prices for different customer segments targeted by the company. The accounting system also helps to estimate the responses of customers to different and changed price levels of Tesco (Garcia, Tolvanen and Wagner, 2021). The price-optimizing system helps Tesco to forecast the dynamic demand conditions in the market, to develop the pricing strategy of the company, control the level of inventory accordingly, and ultimately to satisfy the customers.
Cost-accounting systems: This allows Tesco to estimate the product and service cost of the company. This helps conduct the profitability analysis of the company, evaluate the make valuation of inventory, and to control the cost. To enhance profitability, estimation of the correct cost of the products and services is highly important for companies like Tesco. It is because to make profits, the company must know that which products can generate profits and which do not (Mohr 2019). This can only be done by estimation of product costs which can be effectively done with the help of cost-accounting systems.
Job-costing systems: It is an accounting system that calculates the manufacturing cost for each job separately. With this accounting system, Tesco can track costs easily and effectively for every project separately. The job-costing system analyzes every project and task in detail, it breaks down the cost of labor, material, and overheads. This system helps Tesco to calculate the cost and to evaluate the projects and tasks for cost saving of further similar tasks. This method can also be used by Tesco to identify the excessive cost occurred.
P2- Different Methods used by Tesco for management accounting reporting
Management accounting is highly dependent on the financial statements of the company like the statement of cash flow, balance sheet, etc. There are many methods that Tesco uses for management accounting reporting. These are different kinds of management accounting reports which are as follows:
Inventory method: With this method, the management accountants of Tesco maintain inventory reports which have all the details of stock and product distribution. Using this method helps the accountants to know everything regarding available stock, required stock, and the condition of warehouses, etc. (Conley et al, 2019). The inventory method is extremely helpful for Tesco for the valuation of the company's stock.
Budget Method: This method is used by Tesco for generating budgetary reviews for minimizing the misuse of organizational resources. Making a budget for the activities and tasks of the company helps to distribute the money in all operational areas as per the requirement. This budget method of management accounting helps Tesco to compare the actual results with what the organization has predicted. Also, this method helps to assess the areas where the changes are required to reduce the gap between desired and actual results (T?nase 2021). The budget method can only be used by the Chiefs of Tesco so that the correct distribution of assets to all operational areas can be ensured without any mismanagement.
Cost-accounting method: This method allows Tesco to demonstrate the income and cost of the organization correctly. With the use of this method of management accounting, the accountants of Tesco can analyze all the variables which are related to either sales or the expenses of the organization. The cost accounting method helps the organization to calculate the services of each unit for including the value of all organizational products in the financial statements of Tesco. All these statements like cash flow and balance sheet help to recognize the expenses of Tesco. This accounting method helps the organization to break down its expenses to identify the areas where the company is expanding more and areas where expenses are less. The benefits and profits for Tesco can be maximized with the use of this method.
M1- Benefits of management accounting system and its application in Tesco
If the management accounting system gets applied to Tesco effectively, it can be very beneficial for the organization in many ways. The benefits of the application of management accounting in Tesco are:
Enhanced Financial Visibility: The application of management accounting in Tesco will help the company stakeholders to monitor the financial position of Tesco more effectively and in a better way. Management accounting will make it easier for the top and middle management of Tesco to calculate the profit and losses more accurately by consistently tracking the revenues and expenses of the company (Laguecir and Leca 2019). The accounting system also helps to forecast the cash flow of the company. It all helps to increase financial visibility.
Better management of inventory: Tesco can have better asset management with the application of a good management accounting system in the organization (Suprayitno and Soemitro,2019). The accounting management system will allow the inventory managers of Tesco to manage the inventory, calculate inventory cost and track it, makes calculation of depreciation easier, etc.
Minimization of errors: The accounting system makes all the calculations automated which reduce the risk of errors. It is because when the work gets done automatically with a system, the chances of errors are less as compared to when the work gets done manually. The application of an accounting system allows one to detect errors easily and resolve the same in a way that has no negative effects.
D1- Critical evaluation of management accounting system and its integration with the processes of Tesco
The integration of the management accounting system with the major processes of the company will be highly beneficial as discussed above. The integration will help Tesco to analyze its past work, control the tasks which are ongoing in present, and forecast the future activities as well. The accounting systems also help to review the financial results and will help Tesco to manage the company's expenditure. To integrate management accounting with the processes, first of all, permission will be taken from the administration, everything will be discussed and the essential decisions will be taken (Ameen et al, 2018). Different management accounting reporting techniques discussed above will be integrated with different processes as per the requirement.
P3- Calculation of cost- Income Statement of Tesco
Absorption Costing Method:
Absorption costing helps Tesco to determine the cost of the company's inventory at the end of the accounting period (Hussein 2018). The profit or loss can be identified with this method. As per the calculations shown above, as the fixed costs of the company were higher than the calculated contribution, the company had to incur a loss of 437.56 euros.
Marginal Costing Method:
Managerial costing helps Tesco to solve cost-related problems and allows the organizational stakeholders to make appropriate decisions (Usenko et al, 2018). It also allows calculating profit/loss by calculation of variable and fixed cost. So, according to this costing method, the loss caused to Tesco is 32,423 euros. Tesco had to incur a loss because of lots of variable expenses of the company.
M2- Appropriate financial reporting documents of Tesco
This reconciliation statement is helpful for Tesco to identify profit as per the organizational absorption (Dabbicco and Mattei, 2021). The profit gets calculated based on the opening and closing stock. The reconciliation statement of Tesco also shows the loss the organization has to bear which is 32861 euros.
D2- Financial report and documents
It can be concluded from the first scenario that management accounting and its application is highly beneficial for Tesco Plc. It is because this allows to manage the inventory better and also minimize the errors. The types of management accounting have been identified which Tesco can use. These include inventory accounting, a cost-accounting system, and many more. Budget, inventory, and other accounting report methods have also been identified as appropriate for Tesco. Different financial statements of Tesco have also been discussed and identified that every statement states the loss for the organization.
This is the second scenario that will allow focusing upon different types of budgetary control planning tools along with their merits and demerits. The use of these planning tools for Tesco will be identified. The relevance of management accounting for responding to financial problems will also be discussed. This segment will also light upon the importance of management accounting for the sustainable success of Tesco.
P4- Different planning tools for Budgetary control with merits and demerits
Budgetary control is highly important for Tesco for which it requires various planning tools. The business budget needs to be developed with effective planning and forecast (Gyamfi and Chipwere, 2020). There have been various budgetary planning tools available which organizations use as per their requirements. With time, there has been a shift in the ways organizations do strategic planning. With this shift, the budgeting tools have also changed a lot. The budgetary planning tools will help Tesco to manage the finances of the company, structure the money organization has, and control the expenditure. Every budgetary planning tool has its advantages and disadvantages (Taipaleenmäki 2017). So, Tesco needs to analyze different tools and carefully choose the one.
Budgetary Control Tools
It is a method that will allow the organization to plan the budget in a way that budget will be planned and made differently for every department of Tesco. Then, once the budget gets developed, the variances are found which means the estimated figures and the actual figures get compared by the accountants with this method. Then, these variables get categorized into favorable and unfavorable variances (Erokhin et al, 2019). For example, for the production department, firstly the actual production cost and the estimated cost will be identified to identify the production variances.
With this method, the total cost can be reduced
Usage of this method will help Tesco to be proactive towards the financial and other targets of the organization
It will help to achieve a competitive edge with the development of an effective and sustained budget
It is a lengthy process so, to use this, much time is needed
It will be very expensive to use
Calculation of variances for every department, investigate the same, and then reporting of all the variances is a highly complicated process
Zero Based Budgeting
With this method of budgetary planning, Tesco will need to consider next year's budget as nil. It means that the organization will need to consider that for the upcoming year, their estimated expenses and the estimated revenues will be exactly equal. The zero-based budgeting method assumes that there will be no difference between the number of expenses and revenue hence, the budget will be nil (Moghrabi 2019). Also, it is assumed that if an excessive amount of money will be identified on any of the sides i.e., expenses and revenue, it will get adjusted and the difference will be made zero.
Zero-based budgeting will be helpful for Tesco to have strict control over the expenditure/expenses of the organization
It will help Tesco to strengthen transparency in terms of finances and will also help Tesco to grow
With effective budget planning, it will also help in the effective utilization of resources
This is a complex and highly expensive method for Budgetary control planning
It is a time-consuming process
The decisions taken with this method can be disruptive
In this method, the accountants of Tesco will need to create three different centers named as a profit center, cost center, and investment center. This method will assume these centers as the departments of Tesco. Also, the employees will be classified according to these centers if Tesco will choose to implement this method for budgetary planning (Lennon 2019). With the usage of this method, the employee performance will be recorded manually by Tesco. The accountability of employees will be fixed towards particular quantitative and qualitative goals of the organization. Based on employee performance, then the decisions of demotion and promotion will be taken with the development of the budget.
This method allows developing the budget by keeping the company structure in consideration
It helps to increase accountability
It allows fixing many problems of the organization without much complexity
It is difficult to follow the whole process of this method
Usage of this method requires high skills
It is a costly method for budgetary control planning
M3- Analysis of the usage of different planning tools for budget forecast
Using and applying the budget planning tools in Tesco will allow the managers to have clear tangible goals for the upcoming financial year. The application of any of the above-discussed planning tools in Tesco will be useful to have a fiscal direction to align everything including the goals, the strategies, available resources, etc. Developing a budget for Tesco with a budgetary planning tool is just like making a roadmap to reach organizational goals. If the budget of Tesco will get developed with appropriate planning tools, Tesco will get a reliable basis to measure the success of the company in financial terms. On the other hand, if the budget will get developed without any planning tool, the organizational success will be difficult to monitor.
While the application of budgetary planning tools or while using these tools for Tesco, few keys of budgeting and forecasting will be needed to be considered. These are:
Realistic Budget: While application of the tools, it would be needed to ensure that Tesco will develop a realistic budget and not the one which the company would not be able to follow (Endenich and Trapp, 2020). Like, with the use of any planning tool, It will be unrealistic to assume that cost will directly be reduced by 70% and profits will be enhanced by 90%.
Scenario planning: Firstly, when any of the above-discussed planning tools will get used in Tesco, the scenario will be needed to get planned first. A scenario where everything will be done as per the planning and then the budget will be developed, the forecast will be done for that scenario.
Budget Monitoring and update: Once the budget will get developed for Tesco using any of the budgetary planning tools, just it will be not enough. Instead, monitoring of the developed budget will be required (Rikhardsson and Yigitbasioglu, 2018). The managers at Tesco will also require to update the budget with time as per the requirements.
P5- Comparison of adaptation of management accounting systems to respond to financial problems
Different organizations use or adapt management accounting systems in different ways to solve their financial problems. In Tesco Plc, the adaptation of the management accounting system can be done in many ways which can be compared to each other. Usually, the managers of the organization are confused about the correct way to adapt management accounting to respond to challenges they are facing and to achieve the financial success of the organization. These organizations miss out on many advantages by being confused about the adaptation of management accounting systems. There are only a few companies in which the managers are so confident about the adaptation of management accounting systems. Tesco is one such organization where the accountants and managers have the confidence that they can adopt these systems, fight with the challenges, and achieve sustainable growth of the organization.
The ways with which management accounting can be adopted by Tesco and various organizations to solve their financial problems are:
Financial Reporting: The purpose of financial reporting for the organization is to throw a light upon the financial issues of the organization. It is because financial reporting will allow the management of Tesco to see the real facts and figures for correct and effective decision-making. Financial reporting will focus upon obligation management in the organization and prioritize things as per their importance (Meynhardt and Bäro, 2019). The financial reporting when gets done in Tesco will affect the regulation and management of finances for sustaining the fiscal resources. With the process of financial reporting, audits will get done in Tesco by the audit committee. The audit will be done both internally and externally to address the financial issues of Tesco. These audits will help the management of Tesco to take decisions regarding the expenditure of the company.
Benchmarking: It can be applied and used in Tesco for measuring organizational success. It is a process of setting benchmarks for every task and activity outcome of the organization. Setting the benchmark will help Tesco to improve its performance because the benchmarks will set performance criteria for the organization (Akimova, Osadcha and Akimov, 2018). Benchmarking allows to address the financial dilemma of the organization and help to fix the same. The expenses and profits of Tesco will be addressed by a procedure with the application of benchmarks.
Budgetary goals: The budget needs to be developed in a way that it can identify the challenges of Tesco, and also provide the ways, the strategies to fight these challenges. To resolve the financial problems and to achieve sustainable performance, weekly budget goals will need to be made and achieved by Tesco. First of all, weekly goals should be made, once these are achieved, then the monthly goals will need to be decided. As soon as these are achieved, annual goals need to be made and targeted (Cools, Stouthuysen and Van, 2017). Tesco will need this budget to ensure that the financial targets of the company are achieved. Having effective budget goals and strategies to achieve these will lead Tesco towards growth.
Key Performance Indicators (KPIs): These are the criteria with which the day-to-day activities of Tesco will be measured. The KPIs can be set for both the financial and non-financial activities of Tesco. These KPIs allow the organization to measure the profitability, reliability, and versatility of organization (Daniel, Mahazi and Mayanja, 2020). The key performance indicators will allow us to deeply analyse what the organization has done. KPIs measure performance based on previous data. This is how the performance gets measured and improved as well
M4- Analysis of how management accounting solve financial problems and lead to organizational sustainable success
There are many ways with which Tesco can ensure solutions to its financial problems and ultimately have the sustainable success of the organization. These ways include:
Total Quality Management: Applying the principles of Total quality management will help Tesco to manage the quality of its services which will ultimately lead to sustained growth and profitability of the organization (Ishanka and Gooneratne, 2018). Providing high-quality services will allow Tesco to resolve half of its issues because providing improved services will help to generate more profit which will help to resolve the financial issues.
Financial governance: Tesco can identify the financial issues in a better way with financial governance. Firstly, it will help understand these issues better and then will help to resolve the same. Financial governance aims to prevent the occurrence of financial issues.
Application of managerial accounting skills: Tesco managers can apply their skills of managerial accounting to identify the problems and then to deal with the problems. The financial problems Tesco is facing can be misallocation or mismanagement of financial resources. It can mismanage every other thing in the organization. So, it is important to identify the solution for this by applying managerial accounting skills.
Setting sustainable goals: The management of Tesco needs to set sustainable and strategic goals and try to achieve them with effective strategies (Burritt et al, 2019). This can be done with effective planning. The sustainable goals should be set with a timeline and these should be achieved within that period to achieve sustainable growth of the organization.
Prioritize sustainability: To achieve sustainable growth, Tesco needs to prioritize sustainability. Like, the management at Tesco will need to set sustainable reporting measures so that financial reporting and non-financial reporting can be done in a better way.
D3- Importance of planning tools to solve financial problems and for the sustainable success of Tesco
The planning tools discussed above in the report are helpful for Tesco for solving the financial problems and they will also contribute to the sustainable success of the organization. It is because, with the help of planning tools, it will be easier for Tesco to analyze the areas where investment needs to be done. Budgetary planning and forecast will help Tesco to identify and evaluate financial opportunities and threats, also, help to develop strategies to grab the financial opportunities. Once the budget will get developed with any budgetary planning tool, it will help to set the financial standards for Tesco. Once the standards are set and the actual performance is done, the financial managers will have a set budget as a base to compare the estimated and actual results. This will help Tesco to improve its accountability and to gain more profits ultimately.
The budgetary planning tools will help the organization to tap and study the monetary issues it is facing, and also allow the finance managers to have the solution for the same by reviewing the past monetary records and predict the future. These tools in short will help Tesco to maintain monetary soundness. The planning tools will enact as a formal framework to arrange the finances, formally present these, identify the chances of fluctuations and provide strategies to deal with the same to achieve the sustainable success of Tesco.
These tools are highly helpful for Tesco in many aspects. The importance of budgetary planning tools for Tesco and their contribution to company's sustainable success can be understood with the following:
These tools will enhance the transparency of finances in Tesco because they will clearly show the whole planning and development of the budget. Planning with these tools will be detailed
The financial reporting and monetary analysis will also be improved by integrating the planning tools with the financial processes of Tesco
Planning tools will help to reduce the requirement of resources to develop the budget which will make it sustainable. Also, it will be possible for Tesco to develop the budget faster with the use of these planning tools and that too in a more effective way
This section concludes that the different planning tools are available for Tesco and these have their advantages and disadvantages. It has been identified that the planning tools include zero-based budgeting, variance analysis, etc. It has been found out that these planning tools are highly beneficial to apply in Tesco so that it can grow sustainably. It has also been identified that the financial problems of Tesco can be better identified and resolved with management accounting.
It can be concluded with this report that management accounting is essential for the development and growth of Tesco. Various accounting systems have been identified with the report including inventory management system, job-costing, system, and many more. Different methods of accounting have also been identified like budget and cost-accounting method, etc. It has been found out that there are various benefits of the application of management accounting in Tesco. The income statement of Tesco and other financial documents have also been shown in the report. Different budgetary planning tools have been identified and found out that their application depends upon their merits and demerits. The usage of planning tools for budget forecast has been analyzed by considering the keys like realistic budget, update, and monitoring of budget, etc. The report has identified that addressing the financial problems of Tesco is highly important and it can be done with the application of management accounting. Different ways with which the use of management accounting can be supported have also been identified which include bench marketing, financial reporting, KPIs, etc. Also, various ways in which sustainable growth can be achieved have been identified as financial governance, applying TQM principles, and usage of management accounting skills.
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