ULO4 Principle and Processes of Clinical Risk Management and its Application
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Clinical risk management is related to the enhancing the services quality in the health care organisations. Here, the management identifies the current situation of the organisation and analyse the risks which can harm the patients. To manage the clinical risk, there is four-step process can be adopted by the management of the hospital. In the first step, the present situation is analysed by which the actual risk is identified. Further, the managers need to assess the severity and the frequency of the associated risk in the hospital (Bassett and Westmore, 2012). If the frequency of risk is higher than the authorities needs to adapt the effective measures and vice versa. Additionally, after analysing the frequency of risk the management requires focusing on the reduction of risk with the implementation of the corrective measures. This will allow the management to overcome the issues raised in the operations of the hospitality sector.
At last, the cost of risk must be analysed so that the organisation can focus on the corrective measures to lower down the cost of risk. To apply the risk management techniques, the management requires making a plan so that the whole picture can be analysed.
ULO5 Accountability of the Registered Nurse in Clinical Governance
For the registered nurse accountability is the major concerns in clinical governance. Whereas, accountability can be explained as the responsibility of the actions. As per the modern concept of the accountability, the nurses are the member of the profession. As per this concept, they are responsible for certain roles and responsibilities towards the patients. However, judgements can be made by them in different circumstances. They use their professional knowledge to make the decisions concerning the patients. In clinical governance, the nurses are accountable for certain responsibilities which help the patients to get proper care and treatment in the hospitals (Twigg and McCullough, 2014). There are four 'principle' which form up a structure of professional answer-ability deriving from various types of potency in nursing activity these are professional, ethical, lawful and employment/contractual. All these principles help the registered nurse to perform their roles and duties in a way that the goals and objectives of the hospital can be attained. As a result, the health sector organisations will be able to provide quality services to the customers. This will result in attaining the goals and objectives in an effective manner. In addition to this, the quality health services will result in the increase in a number of patients in the concerned hospitals (Barden, Griffin and et.al., 2011).
GLO1 Specific Knowledge and Capabilities for the Stated Profession
For the stated profession, it requires having advanced knowledge of the principles and concepts. Additionally, coherent and advanced knowledge of the underlying principles and concepts in one or more disciplines and knowledge of research principles and methods. Cognitive and technical skills to demonstrate a broad understanding of a body of knowledge and theoretical concepts with advanced understanding in some areas (Levett-Jones and Bourgeois, 2010). In addition to this, technical skills to design and use research in a project. Besides this, the application of knowledge will demonstrate the application of knowledge and skills:
- With initiative and judgement in professional practice and scholarship
- To adapt knowledge and skills in diverse contexts
- To plan and execute project work and a piece of research and scholarship with some independence (Top 11 Skills for Becoming a Successful Registered Nurse, 2017).
- To contain some important skills such as organisational, stress management, good communication, detail oriented, critical thinking, etc.
- Have a good knowledge regarding medicine, psychology, able to determine the needs of service users, etc. (Ericksen, 2015).
GLO2 Use of Different Communication Modes
In the case of Mr Hammett, nurses could use various communication modes to share the health information and related updates with doctors and other health practitioners. The death of the patient has also dependent over the miscommunication among the health care workers and selection of wrong communication modes. To minimise the probability of occurrence of the following situations in the future, there are different modes of communication can be used. These help in to inform, motivate and the effect change. With the aid of communication skills, the clear ideas and thoughts can be presented to the listener (Martin, McCormack and et.al., 2012). By using effective communication skills, the ideas and principle will be effectually presented. With the help of oral communication, the ideas and principles can be clearly explained to the listener. In addition to this, written communications assist in getting the information with the use of proper language and format. This maintains the reliability of the information in a way that it helps in communicate the right information to the other members. Along with this, interpersonal communication mode can be taken into the consideration by the nurses of Pacific Private Hospital to share the health update of Mr Hammett (Brennan and Flynn, 2013).
GLO3 Application of Digital Literacy to find, Use and Dissemination Information
Digital literacy means the knowledge, skills and behaviours used in a wide range of digital devices. It contains laptops, smartphones, desktops, etc. In the case of Mr Hammett who has died in Pacific Private Hospital because of several reasons such as errors series of errors albeit lack of care on the part of the medical and nursing staff caring for him, aspiration pneumonia, etc. With the help of application of different Digital literacy, nurses can find, use and dissemination of information (Porter-O'Grady and Malloch, 2011). For example, by using the following concept, nurses can able to understand how to use technologies to interact with the other staff members to information about the health status of the patients to health care practitioners and maintain good communication with them. With the help of this, they can record health update of service users in every situation and analyse them to determine the variations in the health status of the patients over the time. The generated information from Digital literacy can assist the nurses to share the record and analysed data with other care workers of Pacific Private Hospital so that they can able to take the right actions to improve the health condition of the patient (Bretschneider, Eckhardt and et.al., 2010).
GLO4 Evaluating Information Using Critical and Analytical Thinking and Judgment
With the application of critical and analytical thinking, it becomes easy to evaluate the existing information in the right way. In the case study of Pacific Private Hospital, with the application of the following concept, it has become easy to evaluate the issues by key points, arguments and assumptions in the information. By doing this, it has assisted the nurses of a hospital to determine what are the exact issues that have lead to the death of Mr Hammett. By this, a new course of actions can be easily taken so that the same problems cannot repeat in the future with any other patients (Huber, 2013). Along with this, by evaluating the already exist information using critical and analytical thinking and judgment; it has determined the causes and effects, the sequence of observational activities, similarities and differences in trends of patient health observation, etc.
GLO5 Creating Solutions to Authentic Problems
By the given case study, it had determined that Christopher Hammett died as a result of a series of errors albeit lack of care on the part of the medical and nursing staff caring for him when he was a post-operative patient at the Pacific Private Hospital. Along with this, it has also found that death was caused by aspiration pneumonia due to, or as a consequence of, coronary atherosclerosis (McSHERRY, Pearce and et.al., 2012). To solve real and ill based problems, nurses of cited organisation should adopt leadership professionals. It will help in developing a successful vision for the organisation and develop collaborative nature between the nurses and other health care professionals. This will allow solving the problems on a daily basis and providing direct guidance as well as provide mentorship to other units nurse staff. Apart from this, with the use of leadership approach, the nurses of cited hospital will show the responsibilities towards large-scale policy planning, staff management, financial resource management, and business management functions (Weston, 2010). Further, this will realise them to understand the core responsibilities such as coordinating and supervising the delivery of health care. Besides this, with the proper education to the nurse, Pacific Private Hospital, it becomes simple to find the solution of the problem.
As per the given case study, it has found that Christopher Hammett had faced unresolved back pain. For this, Dr Scott-Young performed an orthopaedic review on the patient. After few months, the same health checks up done by the doctor and has suggested to Mr Hammett for L5- S1 disc replacement operation. After completion of the 35-minute operation, he has shifted to the Post Anaesthetic Care Unit (PACU) (Dwyer, 2011). There were two registered nurses appointed for patient care and its health observation. During his case, various observations had taken by the health care practitioners to ensure the health of Mr Hammett. From the case analysis, it has identified that there were reasons that were working behind the death of the patient. To overcome the weaknesses of nurses, self-management becomes most important. For this, the first concept in this direction has worked and learning independently. In this context, the management of Pacific Private Hospital should arrange the proper training to them so that they can learn different practices to deal with the patients and deliver them proper care. It will assist in the development of various skills in nurses so that they can work independently in the hospital with less monitoring and guidance. Along with this, self-management concept will allow them to take responsibility for personal actions if they notice no improvement in the health of services. By this, nurses of Pacific Private Hospital can determine several courses of actions in the context of the well-being of patients (Bassett and Westmore, 2012).
From the above research, it can be concluded that in Pacific Private Hospital, Christopher Hammett was referred by his general practitioner for unresolved back pain. Different health observations and check-up were taken into the consideration by the doctors to determine the main route cause of illness. After all these work, it was recommended to carry out a disc replacement operation to the patient. A further operation, Mr Hammett was shifted to PACU where two nurses were there to monitor their health. The less knowledge of operating the equipment and mistakes in taking the health observation, finally the patient died in the hospital. By this case study, it has been concluded that there have several reasons which have shown that nurses have needed proper training and education to taking care of patients and operating the machines. By adopting the right leadership and management styles, they have able to take the right decisions in clinical risk management and apply it in healthcare domains.
Books and journals
Barden, A.M., Griffin, M.T.Q. And et.al., 2011. Shared governance and empowerment in registered nurses working in a hospital setting. Nursing administration quarterly. 35(3). pp.212-218.
Bassett, S. and Westmore, K., 2012. How nurse leaders can foster a climate of good governance: In the first of a four-part series on corporate responsibility, Sally Bassett and Kathryn Westmore explore the importance of workplace culture and leadership. Nursing Management. 19(5). pp.22-24.
Brennan, N.M. and Flynn, M.A., 2013. Differentiating clinical governance, clinical management and clinical practice. Clinical Governance: An International Journal. 18(2). pp.114-131.
Bretschneider, J., Eckhardt, I. and et.al., 2010. Strengthening the voice of the clinical nurse: The design and implementation of a shared governance model. Nursing Administration Quarterly. 34(1). pp.41-48.
Dwyer, D., 2011. Experiences of registered nurses as managers and leaders in residential aged care facilities: a systematic review. International Journal of Evidence‐Based Healthcare. 9(4). pp.388-402.
Huber, D., 2013. Leadership and nursing care management. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Levett-Jones, T. and Bourgeois, S., 2010. The clinical placement: An essential guide for nursing students. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Martin, J.S., McCormack, B. and et.al., 2012. Evaluation of a clinical leadership programme for nurse leaders. Journal of Nursing Management. 20(1). pp.72-80.
McSHERRY, R.O.B.E.R.T., Pearce, P. and et.al., 2012. The pivotal role of nurse managers, leaders and educators in enabling excellence in nursing care. Journal of Nursing Management. 20(1). pp.7-19.
Porter-O'Grady, T. and Malloch, K., 2011. Quantum leadership: Advancing innovation, transforming health care. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Twigg, D. and McCullough, K., 2014. Nurse retention: a review of strategies to create and enhance positive practice environments in clinical settings. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 51(1). pp.85-92.
Weston, M.J., 2010. Strategies for enhancing autonomy and control over nursing practice. Online J Issues Nurs. 15(1).
Ericksen, K., 2015. 5 Professional Nursing Skills You Need to Launch Your Career. [Online]. Available through: <http://www.rasmussen.edu/degrees/nursing/blog/five-professional-nursing-skills-to-land-a-job/>. [Accessed on 5th January 2017].
Top 11 Skills for Becoming a Successful Registered Nurse. 2017. [Online]. Available through: <http://www.topregisterednurse.com/registered-nurse-skills/ >. [Accessed on 5th January 2017].