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Improving And Maintaining The Mental, Physical And Behavioural Health And Well-being Of People, Families, Communities And Populations

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Improving And Maintaining The Mental, Physical And Behavioural Health And Well-being Of People, Families, Communities And Populations

Introduction

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According to the researcher of "World Health Organization (WHO)," "health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." "There is no health without mental health", believes among the scientists of WHO. Mental health is included with logic, analysis, good or bad habits, and psychological comfort. It relates to human's emotions like behaviour, feelings, thoughts etc. It is made with people think, feel, and behave. Mental health may touch on regular based livelihood, associate with all these things, and human health strength.  A relationship in the middle of 'body' and 'mind' makes a clear distinction. Mental health and physical health are always related to each other, not considering the disconnection with mental health. Social well being, which includes mental, physical & behavioural health, indicates one's capability. "Social well-being (the social dimension of health)" refers to our ability to build and to keep going on good communications and bring positive vibes among humans and society, that is, friends, family, co-workers and neighbors etc. Social welfare is strongly associated with social inclusion and a sense of inherent.

Discussion:

1. Discuss social influences on mental, physical and behavioural health outcomes

Mental health has lots of components, including the different stages, feedback from them. Biological and behavioural traits have a significant effect on the physical, mental and cognitive outcomes of individuals as well as social and prenatal life. Home visits also provide a chance for discussing parenting issues(Arango C, et al. 2018)..

Millions upon millions of people will be over elaborated by mental health, which is very poor. During their lifetime and anyone can exploit these problems. There are some people from different frameworks and social circumstances who are at risk to a significant extent. Despite the new perspectives in society, mental health issues are much more acceptable, and many victims still find that they have had to face obstacles in their society such as healthcare, employment, support, family, and community Which can take a toll on us for better mental health. Social exclusion like this can have a lasting and repetitive effect on certain individuals and societal groups. Unfortunately, this often leads to a downward trend in unemployment, debt, poor health and family breakdown(Evans, T.M, et al. 2018). This list of facts combines data from multiple types of research and sources of health information.

 

Social factors affecting mental health

The age group of 16 and 74 are more likely to have general mental health problems than those without mental health problems. These are:

  1. Among them, 59% in women
  2. 45% of human-faced on the age between 35 and 54
  3. 14%  is divorced, person
  4. Alone people are faced on 20%
  5. 9% sufferers for their parental issues.
  6. 31% suffers for the qualifications

These associations throwback the growing prevalence of mental health problems in socially disadvantaged areas of the country.

Employment and mental health

Mental health problems influence a person's capability to work more than any other group of conditions(Bratman, G.N, et al. 2019). Mentally ill workers often do not work to their full potential because these problems impair their ability to do so. It loses about 40% of all days due to illness, 40% of all days lost by claiming disability benefits and 23% of new claimants with disability living allowance. Mental health problems are usually caused by impaired concentration, poor memory, fatigue and attention.  If there are an individual issue and medication, then there is a mental health issue, it may reduce the problems. In  foreign country, the regular problem is “Depression has been found to have a greater impact on productivity and time management than any other health problem.” It also affects the physical function of the arthritis counterpart. Mental illness can lead to health problems that can be a barrier to a high level of communication with the public and a job involving a high-profile profession.

Presentation - where an employee participates but is less productive - may be due to poor mental health. This problem can cost up to 60% for a business related to mental health (Lima, M.L., et al. 2020). This may be because the mental health problems suffering people show no symptoms and do not want to 'prove' that they have a problem due to the stigma surrounding it.

2. Explore a range of models and approaches to behaviour change

Behaviour, or individual or collective activity, is a key determinant of human health.  Europe's most prevalent chronic health conditions, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetics, obstructive pulmonary disease, are strongly linked to lifestyle.   Obesity is caused by smoking, lack of physical exercise, high-calorie intake and excessive alcohol consumption, blood pressures & high cholesterol levels, and blood pressure are the precursors of these diseases. There is unanswerable proof that this breaks the chain of a healthy lifestyle, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, smoking abstinence and blood pressure control is associated with a longer and healthier life span(Coppeta, L., et al. 2019).

a) An ecological approach to behaviour change

 The expansion of personal, social and environmental spectrums may reflect behaviour. It is divided into three steps:

Personal or individual: It belongs to faith, knowledge, vision, skills, genetics.

Social: Friend circles, family and society are interlinked with each other.

b)Environmental: The area in which a person lives, e.g. A wide range of factors, including schools, workplaces, local stores and facilities, and economics (such as prices) and technology.

c) Theories and models of behavior change

A model of Trans-theory or ‘Stages of Change’ model): The interventions of visitors and tailors in their transformational stages are pre-thinking, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance and completion.The theory on Social Cognitive: Focuses on the positive and negative reinforcement of the role and behaviour of observation and learning from others(Hudson, N.W, et al. 2019).

Theory of Planned Behaviour: It is assumed that human behaviour is determined by purpose, and is predicted by point of view, personalized order (belief to hear the approve or reject story), and control the behaviour(trust for easy or difficult work). Theories and Models recognize behavioural change strategies. Interventions often use different behaviour change strategies. These may include the handling of stress, interesting ways of interviewing and motivation to do this and maintain it within a short period. They can also include stress management, motivational interviewing and time management.

d). Information and advice are not enough

It is established to presume that there is insufficient awareness but attitude, creating the desired changes help to improve this. It does not consider the many complex effects of behaviour. This approach indicates changes to the style of the client that may be considered "what to do." The health practitioner may emphasize the benefits of change without fully addressing a person's personal influence, which may prevent change(Padela, A.I et al.2018) . The provision of information probably appeals to those who want to know the information of changing behaviours.  Instead, the health inequality of the information provision system may worsen, ageing whose behaviour immediately takes shape with their environment

and who may have less fit or less attentiveness in information.

Figure1:  Behavioural Change Theory (Source: https://www.eufic.org/en/healthy-living/article/motivating-behaviour-change)

 

3.Discuss strategies to improve the health literacy of people, families, communities and populations:

This type of hesitation is comprehensible but can be kept away if we consider extra supervision to interfere between the patient parties and patient patients. Ways carriers can improve their communication to help patients and families better understand health information(Hynie, M., 2018). There are eight proposals to improve it, these are:

a)First, make an open-ended questionnaire and ask it to patient's parties and note down it in prescription

b) A communication method of Tech Back can determine the patient’s understanding level and note it again in their easy languages.

c) AT the learning time when the patient is busy doing their task, all time a"Return" option is utilized by all.

d) Transfer the patient's copy which is written by them during this processing time, and observe from the right turn.

e) Maintain easy words and avoid complexity and misunderstanding because the medical language is not easily acceptable to all.

f) At the delivering time of instruction, should maintain the soft and polite Speaking in nature.  It should be maintained with respect from both sides and avoid partiality. With the aid of graphical analysis and pictorial materials, patients are motivated easy and can carry their interest in the long term. Different personals are there at different designations for which the proper information is passed through by them. Otherwise, it will be non-effective.

4. Describe health screening and immunisation programmes

Tests are screening for diseases when it is easy to treat, and screening tests can detect diseases quickly. There are different parameters which are portable in nature. Basically, two types of immunization are there.

Passive immunization: Safekeeping in the straightaway, including non permanent sources of immunizer, the example of " Immunoglobulin (IG) and antitoxin".

Active: Keep safe on a long term basis in the form of immunizers.

Immunization Programme:

One of the most important interventions to protect children from "life-threatening" situations is the immunization program, which is avoidable. This is an immunization program, which cannot be avoided. This is a World famous programme for providing free vaccination to each and every level of community irrespective of poor and rich. In 1978, the Indian government started this programme for the betterment of human beings, and it is known as the " Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI)”

For improvement of mental health, including the physical and  behavioral health, not necessary to provide the vaccine. Repeated counselling is needed for the patient. Patients are not only the main focus of these health sectors. Local guardians play an important role in this case. Local guardians mainly push the patient as a victim.

Problem identification and  prioritization cycle:

As suggested by the committee, there are three main stages in the problem identification and priority cycle:

  • Health for the community should be formed.
  • Should make a data sheet for gathering the information, and analyze it to find out the issues and try to solve these issues.
  • Lastly a prioritization list should be made for finding the important health issues. Then first consider the high priority health problems. 

 A  phase of the cycle has begun to effort for the community. Receiving information from the Department of Health on various aspects of health-related conditions may require action on a specific health issue before a community-wide alliance is established. Alternatively, efforts in the vicinity of a specific health problem may be a catalyst for more broad-based activities and additional health status data collection(Cooper, K. et al. 2017).

5. Utilise a range of sources of evidence for health and wellbeing improvement:

The society offers “a community health improvement process (CHIP)” accountability as a basis of operations for society in different health problems as monitoring purposes and then supervision of interlinked with the local community for finding the issues, and plan for solving these issues and repeatedly look after this matter up to the last stage of this issues. For developing these health issues, this process reworks on it. It is allowed to achieve the aim for health betterment and improve societal health in aid of integrated ways(McCormack, et al. 2017).

Figure 2: “A community health improvement process (CHIP)”  (Source: https://www.nap.edu/read/5298/chapter/6#79)

 

For improvement of these health issues, increase the health centre which is located in the locality area(Uskul,. and Oishi, 2020). The number of experts should be recruited as per demand. The health centre facilities should be increased in public health sectors. It should be under control by the ministry of the health department. It is also regularly maintained by the expertise(Araújo, D. et al. 2019).

Conclusion:

In creating health development programs, each community needs to consider its own special circumstances, including opportunities like concerns of health issues, local, human and natural resources, capabilities, human demands and basic needs in political and social views.

The community cannot determine what action should be taken to address a community's health concerns or Who should be held accountable, but it believes that the community demands to identify these issues. A systematic approach to health improvement that will help them achieve their goals using performance monitoring tools. For improvement of mental health, young generations should do meditation every day.


 

Reference list:

Journals

Arango C, Díaz-Caneja CM, McGorry PD, Rapoport J, Sommer IE, Vorstman JA, McDaid D, Marín O, Serrano-Drozdowskyj E, Freedman R, Carpenter W. Preventive strategies for mental health. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2018 Jul 1;5(7):591-604.

Evans, T.M., Bira, L., Gastelum, J.B., Weiss, L.T. and Vanderford, N.L., 2018. Evidence for a mental health crisis in graduate education. Nature biotechnology, 36(3), pp.282-284.

Bratman, G.N., Anderson, C.B., Berman, M.G., Cochran, B., De Vries, S., Flanders, J., Folke, C., Frumkin, H., Gross, J.J., Hartig, T. and Kahn, P.H., 2019. Nature and mental health: An ecosystem service perspective. Science advances, 5(7), p.eaax0903.

Lima, M.L., Martins, H. and Camilo, C., 2020. Societal Health Notebooks. Societal Health Notebooks, (1).

Coppeta, L., Balbi, O., Baldi, S., Pietroiusti, A. and Magrini, A., 2019. Pre-vaccination IgG screening for mumps is the most cost-effectiveness immunization strategy among health care workers. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics.

Hudson, N.W., Briley, D.A., Chopik, W.J. and Derringer, J., 2019. You have to follow through: Attaining behavioral change goals predicts volitional personality change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 117(4), p.839.

Padela, A.I., Malik, S., Vu, M., Quinn, M. and Peek, M., 2018. Developing religiously-tailored health messages for behavioral change: Introducing the reframe, reprioritize, and reform (“3R”) model. Social Science & Medicine, 204, pp.92-99.

Hynie, M., 2018. The social determinants of refugee mental health in the post-migration context: A critical review. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 63(5), pp.297-303.

Cooper, K., Smith, L.G. and Russell, A., 2017. Social identity, self?esteem, and mental health in autism. European Journal of Social Psychology, 47(7), pp.844-854.

McCormack, L., Thomas, V., Lewis, M.A. and Rudd, R., 2017. Improving low health literacy and patient engagement: a social ecological approach. Patient education and counseling, 100(1), pp.8-13.

Uskul, A.K. and Oishi, S., 2020. What is socio-ecological psychology?. Current opinion in psychology, 32, pp.181-184.

Araújo, D., Hristovski, R., Seifert, L., Carvalho, J. and Davids, K., 2019. Ecological cognition: expert decision-making behaviour in sport. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 12(1), pp.1-25.

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