INTRODUCTION - Impact of artificial intelligence (AI)
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The use of artificial intelligence (AI) has been increased within all sectors of the economy but it seems that the education sector has not been put in the spotlight. It seems that AI in education has been established but the impact has yet to be studied. The impact of AI-based applications in the education sector upon college students is researched through this paper. The use of qualitative data collection is done where the technique of developing an interview was done. It was through this that there were 2 college students chosen for the interview from which various data was collected. It was found out from the thematic analysis and discussion done that AI applications like Turnitin and Grammarly have a positive impact on the learning that is being done. It seems that AI applications crave a proper imparting of knowledge for the students but the amount of human ethics is not present within it.
AI-based applications in the education sector
The education sector seems to have leapt technology as many uses of it have been used for the benefits of both students and teachers. It seems that the use of AI has changed the way operations are conducted within various parts of the education sector. Online courses are one of the key development areas that have been bought by AI into the education sector. Authors Yu et al. (2017) have proven this within their research as it has shown that Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have become popular and changed the landscape of imparting knowledge to students. Through secondary research, the authors have shown how e-learning has become a powerful tool that can be used to create different pathways for students that come from different backgrounds. It was found out within the research that personalised learning has allowed there to be a better outcome of results for college students because the competencies which are lacking upon are focused. AI has also combined with learning path constructional tools from which it can be identified which field would be best for an individual. This shows how much future development can be done by the use of AI. The paper does prove to be effective for the research as it shows how AI has been embedded within the education sector but it does overlook ethical mechanisms that might affect the student's careers and studies.
Another AI application that has been prominent within the education sector is virtual learning companions that have arisen due to distance learning. Authors Krassmann et al. (2019) have conducted a quasi-experiment pilot study of 36 students in which it was seen how virtual companions have increased their learning capacity for them. From the discussion, it was seen that learning environments like role-playing simulations 3D virtual worlds had increased not only the quality of education for the students but also increased their motivation levels.
Grammarly is such a method that helps in writing assistant for everyone. This AI technology can be adopted by students to make sure that they have a clear sentence structure and the level of their writing is high. This is necessary for college students as they have to submit several projects and the level of English (grammatically) should be high. Hence, it seems that the use of this AI application can help in achieving this. According to authors Nova, (2018) it seems that having an automated writing evaluation program can help to detect various areas for improvement within a written project.
Impact of AI-based applications on students
The use of AI can help to increase the chances of understanding of what are the career choices that a student can take for the future. Page, L. C., & Gehlbach, H. (2017) have shown within their research that students who had gotten out of high school would benefit from the use of AI as it would help them to guide a proper path toward college. A field experiment was conducted within the research in which Georgia State University (GSU) was taken into account. This was a qualitative data collection method that was used and the findings presented that students who had applied to this college were guided by an AI system that sent messages through e-mails and phone messages. It was seen that students were likely to enrol on time for their classes and majors they would want. This research showed that AI can help to act as a guiding path for students and make sure that they get an effective college education. Grammarly is such an AI application that is an assistant that can help to increase the amount of work that is being done.
Authors Bala et al. (2017) have also shown the impact of AI on students as within their research they have shown how AI-enabled Chabot's can help students to increase the level of queries that they might have. The secondary research that was done within the research has shown that Chabot's seem to be helpful for students as they can as any type of questions that can be asked. This technology has been implemented with various web services so that not only college-related queries can be asked but also other types of areas can be looked into. The use of AI with the Chabot's would help to make sure that there could be improved response time as a faculty member would not be available 24*7 for answering student questions.
Ethics in artificial intelligence
AI is a technology that makes decisions or gives outputs based on facts and figures that are gathered from the web. This does seem to raise the question of whether the level of privacy and ethical decision making would benefit college students or not. Authors Holmes et al. (2021) have conducted a survey in which 60 AIED (Artificial Intelligence in Education) community's leading researchers were taken into account. The findings have represented that AI does not seem to be fit regarding ethical questions that would be done for education. The level of transparency and biasness would seem to be high due to which there would not be a proper outline seeing that there is privacy present. This paper has shown that ethical wise, AI does not seem to be performing efficiently.
The clear knowledge gap is that current areas have been speculated upon and long-term advancements have not been properly addressed. There are no future discussions that have been done within the papers. Also, it seems that college students have been not taken as a sample within the research which leaves a huge gap that needs to be identified. It seems that there would have to be proper research done to make sure that this gap is fulfilled.
The lack of knowledge that seems to be present in the researches is that there has only been one AI enable a platform that has been discussed. This shows that the technology has been only limited to answering questions and not much more areas have been discovered. Students are being helped but they are limited to only several questions or even help that can be received because curriculums can be different for every college.
Qualitative data collection is going to be used within this research to collect adequate amounts of data. Such a method has been chosen as it will help to provide first-hand raw data from the participants. For making sure that such is done, there will be an interview that will be conducted and the questions will make sure that the objectives of the research are achieved (Lobe et al. 2020).
There are many reasons that such a type of data collection method can be chosen but one of the key aspects of choosing this method is that there will be primary data that will be collected. This type of data is first hand and has not been present within the market. Real-time data would be presented through which it could be found out how far AI- applications have come across the education sector and whether they have been helpful or not. All of this can be found out from collecting data that is currently occurring when college students are using AI applications. Hence it can be said that the level of human experience is higher present within the qualitative data collection method.
The interview that is being conducted is filled with open-ended questions through which there can be a high level of the content generated. This shows that there can be an ample amount of data collected by asking various interview questions through which understanding about how AI-enabled applications are helping college students. Through these questions both the positive and negative aspects that are present can be explored effectively (Jentoft & Olsen, 2019).
The final justification for choosing this methodology is that it's flexible. This can be considered as a benefit because if proper answers are not being attained from the selected set of interview questions, then the questions can be changed to acquire the precise data for the research (Hawkins, 2018).
2 college students have been selected through the use of the opportunity sampling method. Such a sampling method has been chosen as it will help to select individuals that are connected with the research topic that has been taken. The key benefit of using this method is that particular individuals can be chosen from which viable data would be received.
Both of the participants that have been chosen are in college but the difference between them is that one has just started college while the other one has been in college for quite some time. This has been done to see found out the difference that AI has had on them and whether it would be useful within the future or not. Also, it should be understood that both of them have been studying in a time when the rise of AI is on the high and would be able to provide effective knowledge regarding the services that they have received from it (Clark & Vealé, 2018).
It should be understood that both of the individuals would be referred to as participant 1 and participant 2 throughout the research. This is a necessary step that needs to be taken because the privacy of the 2 participants would be kept innocuous and the ethics of the research would also be kept in order.
It should be understood that in the time of such a pandemic as COVID 19 it would be hard to arrange a real-time face to face interviews in person. So, the help of the Zoom application will be taken. This application will help to set up a video conference with the participants when they feel they have an adequate amount of time. The use of this digital video conferencing tool is done so that the participants can feel safe in their own space and provide answers to the questions with ease and confidence (Archibald et al. 2019).
Since an interview is being conducted, the foremost stage would be to create a set of questions that would need to be asked. All of the questions need to be open-ended so that the answers received are with high amounts of data.
The second part would be to make sure that online meetings on Zoom are set up. This needs to be done while keeping in mind that both the researcher and participant have the proper amount of time to answer the questions and attain data.
The next step is to interview the participants. The interview will be set up for 3 hours each but if effective data is received then the interview can end early. This would be conveyed to the participants so that they can arrange everything beforehand (Flynn et al. 2018).
The concluding part will be done by collecting all of the data and analysing it. The participants would also be ensured that their data would not be leaked and kept private. This is the procedure that would be followed for attaining information.
Thematic analysis will be done to decipher the data attained from the interview. This would help to make sense of the data in a better manner. To conduct the analysis there will be themes that would be decided according to the set-out objectives. The data received from the interview would then be adjusted within these themes to bring out an analysis.
The justification for this method is that within the interview there will be an ample amount of data and some of it might not be useful. So, to make sure that viable data is achieved, it is necessary to use thematic analysis (Vaismoradi & Snelgrove, 2019).
To analyse the data that has been collected, the use of thematic analysis is used. Three themes have been developed:
Best make use of Ai-based applications
Change in the learning behaviour of students
Impact of AI-based applications on students
Such themes have been developed based on making sure that there is a successful outcome that can be achieved from this research. The last theme that has been developed would hold the most important as the 'Impact' would help to highlight both positive and negative aspects that are associated with AI applications in learning.
Theme 1: Best make use of Ai-based applications
Theme 2: Change in the learning behaviour of students
Theme 3: Impact of AI-based applications on students
From the above analysis that was done, it can be seen that AI applications seem to have mostly a positive impact upon the learning of college students. Both of the participants believe highly within the AI-based applications that they are using and it seems that Grammarly and Turnitin are only a few of the applications that are out within the market to guide students further in college. The key taking away from the analysis is that there is the heavy focus that was put on online classes that are provided through AI. This is necessary to be understood because such is an area that the college students seem to be fixated on as it helps them to understand various areas of the work that is being done.
Ai seems to be creating better career options for the students to follow as through machine learning they can opt for any type, of course, they would like. The advantage that can be seen of using AI is that it helps to increase the level of knowledge that can be gained and even provide an edge while developing mails or cover letters while applying for jobs. However, there is a key disadvantage that is present which is ethics. It seems that the level of human ethics is not present within AI. This can raise issues regarding the private data that is being collected by the technology.
From the literature review that was conducted and the analysis that was done, it seems that some aspects have been different while some are the same. The use of AI applications in education for college students has been used but its long term effect has still been not explored. This was necessary to be done as it helped to bring out the various impacts that were faced by the students.
A virtual assistant is necessary to be looked at because Grammarly seems to be an AI application that would help in creating an outline of how to manage the level of vocabulary that is needed. This has been both mentioned within the literature review and the interview that was done. The 'Impact' theme helped to uncover the fact that college students need additional help outside a classroom where they can make sure that there are effective amounts of aid that is provided to them. It seems that it is through these applications that there can be a further increase in skills. The example of Grammarly can be taken here as it increases the level of writing that is being done by college students (Ghufron & Rosyida, 2018). The AI assistant helps college students to write essays that have a high mark to the college level but this is in terms of vocabulary and sentence framing. The level of diversity is rising within college and students who are weak in English but have high other skills can use this AI virtual assistant to make sure that the college projects that are being submitted by them have a high level of vocabulary and proper sentence framing done within them (Ma= & Siau, 2018).
The learning that is being impacted by AI was also answered by the second theme in where the behaviour of the students was studied. It seems that there were both positive and negative areas that were discussed within this specific theme. One of the positive points that were established is that there could be easier understanding done for the college students when they seem to be stuck in a place. AI understands the different learning environments that a student learns under hence making it highly viable for them to see what are the different areas that they would need to work on (Yang, 2019) understood by the AI applications. This is a huge area that needs to be considered because both of the participants have identified that it is the level of human ethics does not seem to be prone within the AI technology. From this, it can be said that there would have to be a clear understanding that privacy or ethical decision making does not seem to be a strong component of AI.
The final theme had shown the various impacts that were present. It seems that both of the participants were highly satisfied by the use of AI applications in education. It seems that the learning pattern that is present with the students can be further enhanced by the use of AI. It seems that personalised learning that is presented by AI within the education system is highly likely to help students (Kurilovas, 2019). This is linked to the other aspect stated by the college students which is of major online courses being present. When several online courses are present within the market and can be easily accessible, then a student can make sure to take a course that suits their best personal competencies and interests. Such type of AI applications makes it easier for students to make sure that there would be a clear advantage on seeing what one's career is and how to make it effective.
This has also been answered within the third theme as it seems that AI would further grow into higher advanced learning in which intelligent tutoring systems would be applied. Intelligent tutoring systems would be within the education system as they would provide a higher level of teaching to be done. This is because all of the knowledge about a topic would be attained from the internet and then it would be put into simple terms to explain it to each student according to their level of understanding (Mousavinasab et al. 2021).
Another major area that should be considered within the future is that there should be ethical consideration focused upon. The level of ethics leaves one wondering whether there is indeed enough amount of privacy that can be maintained. Ethics is an aspect that does not seem to be properly established within the AI applications hence making sure that there would be a clear articulation of how to manage integrity when developing intelligent tutoring systems.
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