Finance plays crucial role in the company to achieve goals in effective way. Financial management is required to be managed in optimum manner so that firm may extract benefits and accomplish production and various other tasks in effectual way. Present report deals with two organisations aiming to expand their operations by initiating funds and to achieve goals with much ease. Firstly, Victory Ltd is manufacturing sector and is planning for expansion with the help of rights issues and accomplishing finance in the best possible manner. Furthermore, various methods of raising capital are highlighted such as retained earnings, share capital, bank loan, sale of assets, angel investors etc. which are helpful for company in raising finance in effectual way.
Furthermore, importance of capital structure in the business in attaining long term and short term requirements is listed in this report. Importance of having right mixture of capital is also explained and as such, company should have balanced capital structure by initiating debt and equity in equal proportion. This will help company to attain high production in the best possible way. Thus, optimum mix of capital structure is utmost required in the organisation. Furthermore, theoretical ex-rights price for Victory Ltd is also calculated and as such, it is good source of generating funds by initiating discount on it and existing shares can be sold in a better way. Thus, expansion may be made by the company in effectual manner.
On the other hand, report highlights Transparent view Plc which is engaged in providing advance solutions to transport operators in foggy conditions. It is planning to invest in the project so that it may provide services in the best possible manner. It has three projects and planning for selecting best alternative out of it. The capital investment appraisal techniques such as NPV, IRR, ARR and payback period are calculated in order to select best alternative yielding good returns to company to accomplish objectives in effectual manner. These methods of investment appraisal provides clarity to business whether to invest in the project or not. Thus, company can easily take advantage of these techniques to invest money in maximum return generating project. Furthermore, recommendation is also provided to select best option out of the available option in the report. Apart from this, there are various factors that are required to be assessed by company before making final decision to make investment in the project. The factors are also highlighted in this report.
To ascertain the requirement of funds for operational activities in an organisation, this required to have proper records of all transactions. The capital structure of a business demonstrates the ability and efficiency of firm in meeting the long term as well as short term financial needs. Therefore, these are the initial needs of the business which will be gathered by obtaining funds from the external environment or from the operational activities (Muneer and et.al., 2017). The financial position of an entity will be derived as making payments of debentures to the investors who has obtained the preferred or equity shares in business.
The importance of Capital Structure:
In order to manage the financial viability of an organisation it will be important for the business in various terms and aspects such as:
Value maximisation: The properly manages capital structure of firm will be helpful in having better market value. It determines the aggregate value of claims and capital interest of equity holders (Blaylock, Gaertner and Shevlin, 2017). Moreover, it can be said that these transactional activity will be helpful for the entity in terms of creating the brand value in the market as well as attaining the favourable amount of funds.
Cost minimization: In relation with the appropriate management of the funds it can be said that there are various costs indulged with the operational activities of the firm. The managed capital structure will be helpful to the entity in terms of it reduces the cost of finance and costs or capital of the firm. It includes the determination of the funds requirements as well as utilisation in each activities and the variance amount will be carried forward to the next period. Moreover the proper execution of financial statements of the firm will be beneficial in managing the costs incurred in operational activities (Capital Structure: Concept, Definition and Importance, 2017).
Opportunities for investments: It will be helpful to the firm as the managed capital structure will periodically disclosed among the investors or external users. Similarly, it will have positive impacts over the capital level of the firm. Thus, many of the investors will be attracted towards the firm’s profitability (Dhaene and et.al., 2017). Moreover, it will be beneficial for the owners to have appropriate amount of capital collection.
Growth of entity: it will be beneficial in terms of wealth maximisation. Moreover the firm will have appropriate reserves and saving which will enhance the rate of investment. Thus, main use of capital structure to allocate the funds for each business operations and make the adequate investments in various activities (Arrow, 2017). Therefore, the efficiency of the firm will be increased and which will be helpful or them in terms of meeting the short terms and long term debts efficiently.
Increase the share value: the managed capital structure improves the financial health of business which in turn helpful in increasing the share price. Therefore, the firm will have appropriate earning over each share in the market (Muneer and et.al., 2017). It improves the share value of ordinary shares therefore which will be attractive to investors in terms of having the appropriate dividend payments.
shares of victory limited
price earning P/E ratio
Market price per shares
no. of shares
Price of right issued
Theoretical Ex-Right Price
new shares*issued price + old shares * market price
new shares + old shares
no of shares to be issued
new shares*issued price
old shares * market price
theoretical ex-rights value
Interpretation: in relation with Financials of Victory Ltd as per the prior rate of right issues in the market and the old value of shares. Therefore, on the basis of theoretical ex-right value of shares it has been determined that the firm is providing discounts to issue the shares which will be beneficial as to have the adequate increment in the share value of the each equity. Moreover, it will be beneficial for the firm to have the appropriate increment in the profitability as well as revenue gathering. Thus, to have the appropriate gains more than the profits gathered by the firm the rate will be beneficial in making the adequate capital gathering. Thus, the capital collection will be helpful to them in terms of raising the efficiency to meet the dividend requirements of the firm.
In relation with the above listed table, it can be said that firm will have profitable gains in the long run of the business. Moreover, to have the appropriate funds for the operations there will be need of making the adequate analysis over the market and investors. Thus, in relation with Victory Ltd. It has been determined that the new shares will be issued by the firm at 15% of discount rate which will be helpful in making the appropriate rise in the share value. Therefore, there will be sale of large numbers of shares, which in turn bring the appropriate gains to the firm. Thus, the price of right issued will be 2.08 which is comparatively fruitful and profitable in terms of stabilising the capital structure of the firm.
There are various methods of raising capital, which help organisation to initiate activities in effective way. Five methods are as follows-
This is one of the most common source of finance for the company. Victory Ltd may easily expand its operations by taking loan from the bank as it has good solvency position. Loan from bank requires paying instalments along with interest accrued on the same. This implies that company has to repay principal amount with interest on it (Titman, Keown and Martin, 2017). This will provide with funds by which it can easily plan for expansion. Thus, bank loan can be taken by the company to have enough of capital at its disposal and as such, it may be able to extract benefits in the best possible manner.
Company has number of assets that are required in order to achieve production with much ease. This help organisation to accomplish more productivity in effective manner. However, with passage of time some assets become obsolete and no longer helping company in achieving desired production. Thus, Victory Ltd can sell these fixed assets to fulfil capital requirements in the best possible way. Thus, sale of assets may provide with necessary funds to company and as such, it will impart benefits quite effectually. Thus, organisation may sell-off assets and generate amount for expansion purpose (Phan, Khieu and Golec, 2017).
Retained earnings is another method of raising capital, which may help company to meet its objectives in effective manner. This is internal source of finance and is much helpful when firm earns enough of profits. This method means that out of the profits generated by firm, some percentage of it is transferred to retained earnings and as such, remaining part of profits are distributed to shareholders in the form of dividend on their shares subscribed by them. This implies that company can easily take advantage of profits as a method of raising capital in the best possible manner. Victory Ltd can take benefit by retaining some part of profits at its end and impart remaining profits to shareholders and as such, it may generate funds.
This is another source of generating funds for the purpose of expansion of the firm. Victory Ltd can initiate funds by issuing shares and may garner finance in effective manner. This implies that company may easily take advantage of this method for its expansion in the best possible way. Issuing share capital to subscribers can provide funds with much ease to organisation and it can extract benefits out of the same. Moreover, this method is less risky than debt financing as no interest payments are to be made by the company. Thus, there is no liability that arises on company by issuing shares (Tuasikal, 2017). Thus, Victory Ltd can avail this method for expanding its operations.
This is another method of raising finance by Victory Ltd. Angel investors provide funds to company by having stake in the business. This means that these type of investors take some part of ownership in firm and then provide necessary funds to company. This may help firm in effective way as they provide valuable advice to organisation to initiate healthy operations and meet set targets with much ease. Thus, angel investors are better option for organisation to generate funds and expand easily.
Calculation of NPV
Formula – Total cash flows / Initial investment
Discounting factor @ 20%
Discounted Cash flow
Calculation of IRR
Calculation of Payback period
Formula – Initial investment / Total cash flows
Cumulative cash flow
Total cash flow
Calculation of ARR
Formula – Average annual profit / Average investment
Average annual profit
The project should be evaluated on the basis of capital investment appraisal techniques so that effective return may be generated by the organisation in the best possible way. In relation to this, there are various capital investment techniques such as ARR (Average Rate of Return), IRR (Internal Rate of Return), NPV (Net Present Value) and payback period. Each one of these techniques are beneficial for organisation in selecting project out of the various available alternatives. This help to take effective and better decision with regard to project with much ease (Jankensgård and Vilhelmsson, 2017).
Transparent view Plc has three projects for improving upon its services in the best possible way. These three projects are evaluated on the basis of investment appraisal techniques in order to select best option out of alternatives. For overcoming such problem, computation of investment appraisal methods are arrived at for all the three projects in order to select highest yielding project having maximum returns to the organisation. Project 1 and Project 2 both lasts for three years, while, Project 3 lasts for four years.
Starting with project 1 which has initial outlay of RM 300,000 and cost of capital is at the rate of 20 % and as such, NPV is calculated. The value of NPV is negative as computed above and is -41898.14. This makes clear that project is not worthwhile to invest in it. The reason behind rejection of this project is simple as it implies that Transparent view Plc will not be able to earn adequate returns in the future. It is recommended by market experts that positive NPV should be there and as such, higher the NPV, organisation should invest in the project (Mayer, Warr and Zhao, 2017). Furthermore, IRR calculated is 9.54 % which shows that it is very low and good rate of return will not be generated by company and thus, investment should not be made. However, payback period is low which means that return will be produced in less time. On the other hand, ARR is 38.89 % that is also not good as compared to other projects. Thus, it can be said that organisation should not invest in Project 1 because it is not profitable to the company.
Project 2 which lasts for also three years and has initial outlay of RM 250,000 and as such, all four techniques are applied and results have been arrived at. NPV is calculated for this project and is 65972.22 that is positive. This implies that organisation will generate positive returns in the coming year and will be able to improve upon its services (Sweeting, 2017). However, NPV is good for the project but as compared to Project 3, it is low.
This clarifies that this project though has positive returns is less than NPV of other project. While, payback period is 1.8 which is more than compared to Project 1 and it implies that project will take much time to yield adequate returns. ARR is 60 % which is really good as compared to all projects at firm's disposal. This shows that company will have better annual returns by investing in it. On the other hand, IRR is good that means that project will generate good rate of internal returns. But its NPV is less, thus, investment should not be made in it. The main reason behind relying mainly on NPV is that the technique clarifies profitability of project.
Project 3 which lasts for four years and has initial outlay of RM 300,000. NPV computed in this option is highest among all other alternatives. This is evident from the fact that it has 123804.01 of NPV that is more and as such, organisation should invest in the same as better returns will be generated by the project in the coming years in the best possible way. Furthermore, NPV is the highest which clarifies that organisation should invest as positive returns will be produced and as such, profitability position will be enhanced as well. Value of ARR is 58.33 % which is good for the company (Akbas, Boehmer, Erturk and Sorescu, 2017) and positive returns may be produced by investing in the project. Furthermore, IRR is good as well and is 37.30 % which clarifies that adequate returns will be generated by the firm in the best possible way. On the other hand, payback period is 2.33 which means that investment will be take some time to generate to yield returns. But on the account of NPV, it is good and positive which means that investment should be made in Project 3.
There are many factors which are required in selection of project in that way which provides clarity to organisation before making final decision on a project. This is required because capital investment should be made by complying with various factors before taking final decision on the same. In relation to this, apart from investment appraisal techniques which are discussed above, non-financial factors are also required to take into account (Ingram, 2018). This is evident from the fact that though a project may be good as per capital investment techniques which is based on financial data but may not be worth on the aspect of non-financial data which is utmost required in the organisation. In simple words, final decision should be made in accordance to the financial and non-financial data so that project may be evaluated on equal basis.
The non-financial factors play important role in the company in carrying out correct decision in the best possible manner. The factors contain are safety of employees and public, necessity to maintain existing lines of products, entry to new market. Safety of employees is one of the main non-financial concern of organisation so that it may function well. The workers are integral part of company and as such, viability of project should be fairly identified so that no project may be selected which is hazardous to employees. The same apply to society as well and as such, it is required that values and beliefs of society should be taken in consideration while selecting project. Another is necessity to maintained existing products line that means that investments are taken to aid in manufacturing of items and to increase production capacity and as such, this should be taken in consideration by the company.
Entry to new market is another type of investment which is taken in order to strengthen organisation's product portfolio and as such, entry is essentially required in the new market to garner more customers. This will help company to enter in new market and earn more revenue. Thus, this consideration should also be taken by the firm to select appropriate project in balanced way. Moreover, there are various other factors required to be considered by the company before making final decision regarding project (Chen, Lu and Yang, 2017). Among this, ethical considerations, environmental concerns are main factors driving company before approving the project in the best possible way.
Ethical considerations include employee safety, societal norms and values, which are required to be taken into account by the firm. Transparent view Plc is required to assess project on this behalf so that it may satisfy society as at the end business is started to provide better goods and services to society and as such it is required by the company to select project by taking ethical consideration as a priority before arriving at a decision. The investment may affects society because of new equipment’s, modern technology installed in the organisation’s premises and as such, it is needed to take this into account. Overhauling on equipment in order to increase production may affect society. Thus, company should consider this fact before making decision to invest in the project.
Furthermore, environmental concerns should also be there because sometimes investment may be hazardous to nature and as such, organisation should put forward the same. Capital investment should be made with utmost care by the management so that no harm may be provided to the nature in any manner (Idris, Krishnan and Azmi, 2017). This is evident from the fact that investment are made on more financially appealing alternative without thinking over the nature. This harms environment and as a result, firm should make concern about this fact to extract results in the best possible manner. Thus these factors are required to be considered by Transparent view Plc to make final decision about the project.
Hereby it can be concluded that finance is essentially required in the business for smoothing operations and accomplishing production in the best possible manner. The company requires finance in order to meet daily requirements and achieving tasks in effectual way. It can be concluded that Victory Ltd can expand its operations in the manufacturing sector as it has good financial position in the market. Furthermore, it can be said that company can issue shares at discount by adopting theoretical ex-rights price option in effective manner. It is recommended that company should have balanced capital structure so that it may extract benefits of debt and equity at its disposal quite effectually. This is required as complete relying on equity may be riskier for the firm as it inculcates that more dividends are to be paid and on the other hand, excessive use of debt in the capital structure may hamper solvency position as interest along with principal amount is to be repaid to creditors. Furthermore, it is recommended that company should take adequate source of finance as each one has benefits and limitations.
Moreover, Transparent view Plc has three projects on its disposal and best alternative is to be selected which provide higher returns in effective manner. This will help company to have investment in better project. It is recommended that organisation should invest in the Project 3 as it is better option among other alternatives. This is evident from the fact that NPV is much higher as compared to other projects whereas, IRR, ARR are also good and as such, it is recommended to invest in this project only. Moreover, capital investment appraisal techniques are quite helpful in attaining correct decision in the best possible manner. Thus, organisation should invest in the project as it yields maximum return in effective way. This investment will be beneficial for the company in accomplishing objectives quite effectually. Furthermore, it can be said that in order to attain goals, firm is required to have optimum mix of capital structure for extracting benefits in the best possible way. Thus, it can be said that finance plays crucial role in the company for meeting its daily requirements of capital and as such, firm should utilise funds in that way which maximises revenue quite effectually.
Books and Journals
Akbas, F., Boehmer, E., Erturk, B. and Sorescu, S., 2017. Short interest, returns, and unfavorable fundamental information. Financial Management. 46(2). pp.455-486.
Arrow, K. J., 2017. Optimal capital policy with irreversible investment. In Value, capital and growth (pp. 1-20). Routledge.
Blaylock, B., Gaertner, F. B. and Shevlin, T., 2017. Book-tax conformity and capital structure. Review of Accounting Studies. 22(2). pp.903-932.
Chen, Z., Lu, A. Y. and Yang, Z., 2017. Growing pains: international instability and equity market returns. Financial Management. 46(1). pp.59-87.
Dhaene, J. and et.al., 2017. Is the capital structure logic of corporate finance applicable to insurers? Review and analysis.Journal of Economic Surveys. 31(1). pp.169-189.
Idris, F. H., Krishnan, K.S.D. and Azmi, N., 2017. Relationship between financial literacy and financial distress among youths in Malaysia-An empirical study. Geografia-Malaysian Journal of Society and Space. 9(4).
Jankensgård, H. and Vilhelmsson, A., 2017. The Shareholder Base Hypothesis of Stock Return Volatility: Empirical Evidence. Financial Management.
Mayer, R. C., Warr, R. S. and Zhao, J., 2017. Do Pro‐Diversity Policies Improve Corporate Innovation?. Financial Management.
Muneer, S. and et.al., 2017. Impact of Capital Market Expansion on Company's Capital Structure. NFC IEFR Journal of Engineering and Scientific Research. 5.
Phan, H. V., Khieu, H. D. and Golec, J., 2017. Does earnings management relieve the negative effects of mandatory pension contributions?. Financial Management. 46(1). pp.89-128.
Sweeting, P., 2017. Financial enterprise risk management. Cambridge University Press.
Titman, S., Keown, A. J. and Martin, J. D., 2017. Financial management: Principles and applications. Pearson.
Tuasikal, A., 2017. PENGARUH PENGAWASAN, PEMAHAMAN SISTEM AKUNTANSI KEUANGAN DAN PENGELOLAAN KEUANGAN TERHADAP KINERJA UNIT SATUAN KERJA PEMERINTAH DAERAH (Studi pada Kabupaten dan Kota di Provinsi Maluku). Jurnal Keuangan dan Perbankan. 10(1).
Capital Structure: Concept, Definition and Importance. 2017. [Online]. Available through :< http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/financial-management/capital-structure/capital-structure-concept-definition-and-importance/44063>
Ingram, 2018 Qualitative Factors in Capital Investment Decisions [Online] Available through :< http://smallbusiness.chron.com/qualitative-factors-capital-investment-decisions-73769.html>
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