Economic environment of any country is on the basis of financial stability (Arrow, K. and Kruz., 2013). Effect of monetary factors as interest rates and tax rates decided by central bank of UK creates atmosphere of inflation and deflation. Market position involves production and distribution of supply of money and price strategy of goods and services depends on demand (Hansen, A., 2013). Consumer demand effects fluctuation of money supply. Analysis of economic environment presents financial position of nation. Environment of UK is fluctuated by recognition of past years economy and latest financial position. Recently, the economic condition of the country seems at downwards direction. The country is suffering from inflation that is raise in price situation. It is due to imbalance in productivity and profitability of resources obtained in UK market. Day by day price of goods and services and increasing in imports. Recently, the bank rate of UK is cut down to 0.5% which was 0.25% in August. The Bank of England determines the additional cause of the problem is unemployment and lack of resources in UK country. Due to increase in inflation rate, UK suffers from more decrease in interest rate, which is unfavorable for country's monetary development. Hence, it results to flexible position in international market. To solve out the issue, bank should try to increase in export as well decrease in import (DeLong, J. and Summers, L., 2012). The matter can be solve out by seeking to balance monetary policy's rules and regulations. Maintenance in bank rates is required to economic stability and reduce recession. Bank of England expects to increase bank rate at 0.10% till 2017. Therefore, a stable atmosphere of economy would be beneficial for UK market.
Effect of monetary policy on financial market:- Monetary policy considers as a tool to implement economic stability and development of any nation by increasing and decreasing bank rate or interest rate (Afonso. and Sousa, R., 2012). Bank of England as central bank of UK makes monetary policy plans and determines ideas to expand businesses. Policy also tries to balance between spending and gaining withing countries of the world. Through applying monetary policy by UK central bank, it remains helpful for economic stability and impacts on UK market in effective as efficient manner.
Thus, monetary policy planning will be effective to solve out inflation issue and it results to economic stability of UK and high level financial position in global environment.
Through monetary policy planning strategy, central bank decreases interest rates according to economic environment. It aims to motive people for spend more and save less. The bank reduces interest rates which would be resulted to economic stability of UK. When rates reduces, increasing in demand for loan and borrowing seems to be effective. It plays great role in foreign investment and overall worldwide development and encourages lending. Australian politician Scott Marrison says that increasing in negative interest rate impacts on central banks effectiveness as well monetary policy seems to be exhausted and effective. It effects country's monetary stability and improves willingness of consumers towards loan facility. Monetary policy plays great role to balance inflation in situation of rise in prices for resources. Central bank of UK guides to commercial banks and financial institutes to decrease interest rates and bank rates (Leary, M. and Roberts, M., 2014). Therefore, discouraging in saving and encouraging in investment would be increases rapidly. Position of banks and international transactions improved at high level in global financial market.
Therefore, Scott Marrison opinion on negative interest rate reflection creates understanding to learn impact of negative interest rate on economic framework of UK market. It is suitable for monetary stability and reduction in inflation. It affects various rates within banking organizations for business expansion. It is useful to make position of qualitative production and profit gaining regarding optimum allocation of resources.
Monetary policy decides plans to implement economic stability of UK. It sets targets to improve financial position of any country. Australia suffers global issues due to fall out from Brexit and US presidential election. It reflects to fluctuation in economic balance of the nation. Therefore, budget planning and implementation of budgetary control effects. A flexible environment creates and issues arises globally. Monetary policy and generating ideas to budget strategy considers as difficult for UK. Globally, it effects on many factors such as inflation-deflation, imbalance structure to implement export and import position. It also effects on supply of money and unsystematic management of resources. Fund allocation and facilities of goods and services remains uncertain monetary planning and its imbalanced environment.
Thus, global issues like Brexit and US presidential election effects on economic condition of UK reflects position of monetary stability in international market also generates ideas to prepare budget and strategic planning for global development.
Authorized deposit institutions is an institution which encourage to take deposits from consumers at high level. It involves banks, credit unions and societies. It remains a vital tool to collect money by gaining deposits and utilization of money to develop effectiveness and efficiency of country as well financial institute. It aims to financial development of country same as increase in cash, liquidity and tries to reduce risks of imbalanced spending and gaining structure. Bank of England motive UK people for saving through attracting interest rates. It pulls customers to provide high interest rate on saving and deposit accounts. The authorized deposit institutes is authorized under Banking act, 1959. It involves guidelines and implementations of payment facilities.
Basel Accords involving papers like discussion papers, draft standards and various pillars to make a structural framework to set goals in different kinds of fulfilling requirements of deposit and increasing stability (Lane, P., 2013). The institution provides deposit guarantees to encourage saving and saving habit in UK people. The deposit institution breaches reporting regarding necessary elements of financial terms. It reduces risks by probability and impact rating system remains helpful to reduce risks and implement action plans to solve out the issues. It is helpful to regulate and manage funds of banking organizations as per Supervisory Oversight and response system also useful tool to decrease risks and makes pillars for achieving effectiveness in depository system of banking institutions.
Except above mentioned, ADI involves additional techniques to encourage saving and deposited re monthly banking statistics remains helpful for analyzing proper balance of spending and gaining overall balance of payment. Performance of banking institutions and effectiveness in deposit increases credit ability of financial institutions useful for reporting standards. The authorized deposit institution is helpful to authorize and implement information regarding financial tools and monetary policy plays great role in economic stability as well institution's planning strategies for development of nation at large scale. Collection of all branches' effective and generating ideas to gain economic stability and environmental factors related to banking sectors. The institution creates a strategy to implement action plans for increasing in deposits and attract UK people to deposit an depository money at high level through optimum allocation of funds. It is helpful to utilize sources and investments to improve cash and creditably of UK effective environment.
The report on financial management and institutes is helpful to understand various aspects of financial terms to manage central bank of UK as Bank of England. It is an effective tool to express monetary policies and economic stability solution during inflation and deflation situation of financial market. It provides a great idea to sustain banking position in international market and optimum allocation of resources. The report generates idea to create balanced environment between spending and gaining position of monetary transactions. Monetary policy and budgeting planning strategy to plan and implement actions for saving and investments. It produces financial intermediaries elements to sustain development of economy on the basis of Basel pillars. Manner to solve out global issues of Brexit and US presidential elections consists useful process to direct upward monetary stabilization. Bank of England ideas to manage and control regulatory forms of selected organizations. Therefore, a proper economic stability presence ability to encourage funds as sources and investments. A systematic approach creates by understanding aspects of financial institutions and effectiveness of economic development of UK market.
Books and Journals
Afonso, A. and Sousa, R.M., 2012. The macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy. Applied Economics. 44(34). pp.4439-4454.
Arrow, K.J. and Kruz, M., 2013. Public investment, the rate of return, and optimal fiscal policy (Vol. 1). Routledge.
Auerbach, A.J. and Gorodnichenko, Y., 2012. Measuring the output responses to fiscal policy. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy. 4(2). pp.1-27.
Blanchard, O.J. and Leigh, D., 2013. Growth forecast errors and fiscal multipliers. The American Economic Review. 103(3). pp.117-120.
DeLong, J.B. and Summers, L.H., 2012. Fiscal policy in a depressed economy. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity. 2012(1). pp.233-297.
Galí, J., 2015. Monetary policy, inflation, and the business cycle: an introduction to the new Keynesian framework and its applications. Princeton University Press.
Gertler, M. and Karadi, P., 2015. Monetary policy surprises, credit costs, and economic activity. American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics. 7(1). pp.44-76.
Gertler, M., Kiyotaki, N. and Queralto, A., 2012. Financial crises, bank risk exposure and government financial policy. Journal of Monetary Economics. 59. pp. S17-S34.
Hansen, A.H., 2013. Fiscal policy & business cycles. Routledge.
Jiménez, G. and et.al., 2014. Hazardous Times for Monetary Policy: What Do Twenty‐Three Million Bank Loans Say About the Effects of Monetary Policy on Credit Risk‐Taking?. Econometrica. 82(2). pp. 463-505.
Lane, P.R., 2013. Cross-border financial integration in Asia and the macro-financial policy framework. World Economics. 14(2). pp.37-52.
Leary, M.T. and Roberts, M.R., 2014. Do peer firms affect corporate financial policy?. The Journal of Finance. 69(1). pp.139-178.
Schularick, M. and Taylor, A.M., 2012. Credit booms gone bust: monetary policy, leverage cycles, and financial crises, 1870–2008. The American Economic Review. 102(2). pp. 1029-1061.
Treasury, H., 2016. Reforming Britain's economic and financial policy: towards greater economic stability. Springer.
Kashkari, N., 2016. The Role and Limitations of Monetary Policy. [Online]. Accessed Through:<https://www.minneapolisfed.org/~/media/files/news_events/pres/kashkari-remarks-ecom-05-09-16.pdf>: [Accessed on 13th December 2016].
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