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Construction Technology & Guidelines Assignment Sample

Introduction

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The Construction Technology in the building of domestic houses refers to the appropriate collection of innovative tools, machinery, modifications, different software, etc. It can be used at the time of the construction phase for a project which can enable the advancement in the fields of construction methods based on semi-automated as well as construction equipment. In this project, the standards, as well as codes of practices of the National House Building Council OR NHBC, will be adopted in terms of the building of domestic houses and services in the United Kingdom. The main aim of this project is to understand the actual standards and codes in terms of building a new house and services to gain the knowledge for appropriate supervising on the construction site.

Main Body

Task a:

Foundations

In this regard, the Raft, Pile, Pier as well as beam foundation shall comply with different technical requirements according to NHBC in the United Kingdom. Proper guidance along with relevant standards along codes of practices are required.

Figure 1: Codes of Practices

(Source: nhbc-standards.co.uk, 2021)

Different elements related to foundations are following:

  • External Walls

  • Separating walls

  • Internal load-bearing

  • Piers

  • Sleeper walls

  • Internals masonry walls

Relevant information like dimensions, depth type, detailing of ducts, junctions, steps, locations of services are required. In this case, the designer should be aware of ground conditions, water table levels, any fixtures needed regarding special attention like existing sewers, etc. On the other hand, the cavity should be drained below the DCP which can prevent the crossing from the outside to the inside having a minimum of 25mm clear cavity and there is trench fill as well as ground beams can be used, It should have 150mm clear cavity below the DCP based on wipe holes and other necessary measures for ensuring the cavity as to drain freely.

To design the vibratory ground improvement consisting of foundation should be investigated through the experienced engineer in the improvement techniques of ground based on the technical needs of R5 (Curtis-Thomas and Lane, 2021). In this regard, the British standard codes, as well as authoritative documents, will be required in the relevance of ground improvement.

Figure 2: British Codes of Practices for Vibratory Ground Improvement

(Source: nhbc-standards.co.uk, 2021)

Considering the management of land quality as well as managing the ground conditions there are massive requirements of initial evaluation where the sites to be evaluated through a desk study as well as walker survey. The outcome should be applied for determining if any hazards are suspected. On the other hand, a basic investigation can be done for supporting the outcomes of primary evaluation which are not suspected. After proceeding with a detailed investigation, it requires a basic detailed investigation which can be considered for confirming all of the objectives have been achieved. Finally, different hazards can be identified based on the design precautions as well as the remediation process will be obtained for reducing the effects. If any further unfrozen hazards are found then further investigation is required.

Figure 3: Managing Ground Conditions at Construction Site

(Source: nhbc-standards.co.uk, 2021)

Ground Floors

Considering the NHBC standards-based in the United Kingdom, the ground-bearing floors may only be used where the actual depth regarding infill is less than 600 mm deep and it is compacted properly. Saying about the design and specifications the plan dimensions as well as level should be related to benchmarks. On the other hand, the needed sequence, as well as trench backfill depth, will be relevant to the walls below DPC. Details of documents for backfill, infill, and void formers are required. Appropriate works are required for maintaining the integrity related to DPCs and damp proof members (DPMs). The date should be relevant to the proposed underground services that include the entrance of the house. For transferring the loads, the actual design regarding the substances should take account-based on-site investigation, and infill is required that is deeper than 600mm and finally, a suspended floor is needed. The load-bearing partitions should have proper foundations and will not be supported by the ground-bearing floors. 

  1. Ground Hazards

Different hazards affect the substructures and ground-bearing floors by contaminated materials, waterlogged ground, different chemicals, and finally particular sulfates. It is required to reduce the entry of radon gas during the site investigation recommended by NHBC.

  1. Bearing Capacity

Ground-bearing floors may not be suitable where the actual capacity of bearing as well as the nature of ground varies even where the actual depth of the infill is less than 600mm. Special measures may be required for limiting the disposal like the use of suspended floor construction.

  1. Nature

Compressed soils are classified as those that contain more than 36% fine particles (Silt & Clay) and that have 15% or more regarding modified plastic index (House and Way, 2021). Hence, a soil evaluation laboratory should be a consulate for verifying plasticity indicators.

  1. Materials Used for Fill

The materials should be well-graded and able to pass a 150mm x 150mm screen in every direction. It will avoid inert as well as contamination of hazardous materials. In this regard following types of materials can't be used:

  • Materials that were obtained from the demolition process.

  • Ashes of furnaces as well as combustion of other products.

  • Slags

  • Colliery shell as well as any other residue from the extraction of minerals.

  1. Walls & Concrete Cavity Fill

Backfill should be placed within the actual layers regarding equal thickness for both sides of substructure walls and it can be compacted on one side and the backfill should be compacted on one side of the foundation. The technical requirements are given in below figure:

Table 1: Technical Requirements of Thickness

(Source: Self-Made)

On the other hand, there is a minimum 225mm clear cavity required below the DCP and it should be maintained properly. The depth of the cavity should be decreased to 150mm below the DCP (nhbc-standards.co.uk, 2021).

Figure 4: Regulatory Solution for Fill

(Source: nhbc-standards.co.uk, 2021)

  1. Brick

Clay-based brick will comply with BS EN 771 and it can be classified based on durability and active soluble salts. It can be consulted with the manufacturer where Calcium silicate regarding DPC should be at least the class 20 of strength considering geographical location & location in the structure.

Figure 5: Classification of Bricks

(Source: nhbc-standards.co.uk, 2021)

Exterior Walls

The structure of the exterior walls should be designed for supporting as well as transferring loads to foundations safely and without any type of movement. 

  1. Compliance with Standards

The actual design of the exterior walls should comply with the relevant standards of British codes. The standards are providing in the following figure:

Figure 6: British Codes for Exterior Walls

(Source: nhbc-standards.co.uk, 2021)

  1. Lateral Restraint

In this regard, the concrete floors should consist of a minimum of 90mm onto the wall and it can deliver an adequate restraint. Considering the timber joisted floors, it can deliver an adequate restraint where joists are carried through a general hanger to BS-EN 845-1. For this structure, the minimum bearing will be around 90 mm or 75 mm for timber wall late. The joisted can be accrued through BS EN 845-1 restraint-based hanger and strap space around 2m maximum centres. [Referred to Appendix 2]

Figure 7: Standards for Materials

(Source: nhbc-standards.co.uk, 2021)

  1. Concentrated Loads

The concentrated loads can be designed by a qualified engineer. In this regard, the bearing stress under the concentrated loads will be more than the strength of supporting masonry walls, pad stones as well as spreaders. The pad stones as well as spreaders will be needed for supporting the concentrated loads (Leonards-on-Sea, 2021). Considering the bonding the partition walls for the exterior walls wall should be constructed with similar materials and they will be fully bonded and tied joints. Tied joints can be formed through expanded materials where 300mm maximum intervals are required.

  1. Movement Joints

The movement joints should be included in a large length regarding walls for reducing the crack and the stability can be maintained properly. The joint should be hidden in corners as well as behind the rainwater pipes. The actual dimensions regarding the movement joist are given in the following figure:

Figure 8: Dimensions for Movement Joints

(Source: nhbc-standards.co.uk, 2021)

The movement joints are not suitable for the inner leaf of cavity walls. The wall tiles can be applied on either side of the movement joints based on clauses. Where the exterior walls form panels in a frame structure, the joints of movement should be applied based on BS N 1996-9 as well as PD 6697.

Figure 9: Brick Requirements for Exterior Walls

(Source: nhbc-standards.co.uk, 2021)

  1. DPC

The designers have to focus on the characteristics of materials selected for the Damp Proof Course or DPC. Exhaust or obstructive elements in a major pressure wall can be applied as unwanted as DPC. Adherence of DPC to mortar as well as the actual capability to withstand sliding or shear stress will be considered in such cases of lateral loading conditions.

Roofs

  1. Balcony

The exterior facility platform should be accessible above an open space above ground level with direct access to the building. Considering the projection, the balcony should be cantilever from the external wall line (Shepherd, 2017). To access the balcony pedestrian access should be built with two or more dwellings.

  1. Flat Roof

Considering the flat roof, a roof should have a maximum slope of 10 degrees from the horizontal. It will be fully as well as partially supported independently of the structure of the building.

Table 2: Materials Used for Roof Covering

(Source: Self-Made)

  1. Deck

The substrate of the structures can include the boarding of timbers and sheeting which can be profiled with metal sheeting on the joints or purlins. It will be based on the upper surface in situ as well as pre-cast concrete and also any applied screed. [Referred to Appendix 4]

  1. Paving or Decking

In this regard, a protection layer should be applied on which people walk above the waterproofing layer based on the balcony or terrace. Insulation should be placed directly above the waterproofing layer.

Figure 10: Types of Insulation for Roof

(Source: nhbc-standards.co.uk, 2021)

  1. Firring

In this matter, a tapered batten should be provided which makes a fall to the timber deck. The actual roof components above the deck include AVCL, insulation, waterproofing layer, and finally the surface finish.

Table 3: Materials for AVCL

(Source: Self-Made)

  1. Terrace

Said about the terrace, a private terrace can be built related to the use of a single dwelling. On the other hand, an access terrace should be built in terms of providing pedestrian access for two or more dwellings considered as walkways or access decks.

Table 4: Size of Firring Pieces used for Falls

(Source: Self-Made)

Figure 11: Size of Design Falls for Different Roof Types

(Source: nhbc-standards.co.uk, 2021)

Task b:

Water Supply & Conservation

Considering the NHBC standards, the water services should be dependent on the actual pressures as well as flow rates supplied from the incoming sources. Proper components can be chosen in terms of providing satisfactory services to the owners. The entire system is based on four different aspects which are discussed in the following sections:

  1. Suitable Materials & Components

There are different materials as well as components used in the system of water supply and conservation process based on relevant standards (Boothman et al. 2018). Some relevant standards related to the materials as well as components are providing for the domestic water system in the below figure:

Figure 12: Different Standards for Domestic Water Systems

(Source: nhbc-standards.co.uk, 2021)

  1. Appropriate Supply

The design and installation of the water services are provided below:

  • It should be based on the regulations of building, statutory needs as well as recommendations for the water supplier. [Referred to Appendix 1]

  • Has to ensure that drinking water can be provided directly from the supply pipe to the kitchen sink or from the storage tank where it has an appropriate supply of water.

  • It should be dependent on a minimum of 1.5 bar dynamic pressure at the point of the stop valve in the house.

  • The flow rate should be a minimum of 20L/min.

  • The service pipes should be a minimum of 750 mm below ground level where it is not possible and proper precaution should be required related to snowfall as well as mechanical damage.

  • It has to make sure that the stop valve inside the cartilage as well as outside the house should be protected by a box.

Figure 13: System of Water Distribution

(Source: nhbc-standards.co.uk, 2021)

  1. Durability

By using corrosion resistance pipes and fitting, a mixture of hot as well as cold water services can be installed. Where corrosion in the copper cylinder occurs, there is a massive need for aluminium protective rods. It can be plated at the time of production based on British standards. On the other hand, a discharge anode should be installed provided through water suppliers. [Referred to Appendix 3]

Figure 14: Insulation System

(Source: nhbc-standards.co.uk, 2021)

  1. Protection from Cold

For reducing the issues of freezing the water services can be installed in the warm envelope in the home (Burgess et al. 2018).  It should be located at an unheated place that needs to be insulated and will not be affected by the cold. 

Figure 15: Minimum Thickness of Insulation System

(Source: nhbc-standards.co.uk, 2021)

It requires cisterns as well as vent pipes in the water services or pipework. Each side of raised tanks should be placed in unheated roof paces by following up BS EN 806 and BS 8558 (semanticscholar.org 2018).

Figure 16: Example of Insulating Materials

(Source: nhbc-standards.co.uk, 2021)

Task c:

Figure 17: Composite Sketch of the Foundation-Ground Floor-Exterior Wall Junction

(Source: Self-Made)

Figure 18: Composite Sketch of the Exterior Wall-Roof Junction

(Source: Self-Made)

Figure 19: Schematic Diagram of Sustainable Building Services

(Source: draw.io)

Conclusion

From the above study, it can be concluded that the entire project is based on sustainable building services where it can show the standards as well as codes of practices in the construction process of new domestic homes. The entire study is related to the NHBC standards as well as codes of practices for the region of the United Kingdom. Appropriate methods regarding the new constructions as well as the system of domestic water services have been determined properly. At last, three different diagrams have been provided based on the construction process and also a schematic diagram on sustainable development of the building.

Reference List

Journals

Boothman, C., Craig, N. and Sommerville, J., 2018. The UK housing developers’ five-star rating: fact or fiction?. Journal of Facilities Management.

Burgess, G., Jones, M. and Muir, K., 2018. BIM in the UK house building industry: opportunities and barriers to adoption. University of Cambridge Cambridge Centre for Housing & Planning Research.

Curtis-Thomas, C. and Lane, B., MONOLITH BRICK CLADDING SYSTEMS AND DECORATIVE STONES STONEPLUS.

House, I. and Way, A., JABLITE GROUND HEAVE PROTECTION PRODUCTS (JGHP) JGHP–VERTICAL HEAVE PROTECTION.

Leonards-on-Sea, S., DOWNER CLADDING SUPPORT SYSTEMS DOWNER RAINSCREEN CLADDING SUPPORT SYSTEMS.

Shepherd, C., 2017. The gender and age profile of the house building sector.

Online Articles

semanticscholar.org 2018, Anticipating the Compressive Strength of Hydrated Lime Cement

Concrete Using Artificial Neural Network Model, Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/c503/3fdf9c8af757df13b0167b0bd9562ec23ee3.pdf [Accessed on 07.07.2021]

Websites

nhbc-standards.co.uk, 2021, NHBC Standards, Available at: https://nhbc-standards.co.uk/6-superstructure-excluding-roofs/6-1-external-masonry-walls/6-1-17-dpcs-and-cavity-trays/ [Accessed on 07.07.2021]

Appendices

Appendix 1: Water Conservation System

Schematic diagram of the water conservation system. | Download Scientific  Diagram

(Source: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Obiora-Nnene/publication/272826538/figure/fig1/AS:[email protected]/Schematic-diagram-of-the-water-conservation-system.png)

Appendix 2: Damp Prevention of Exterior Walls

(Source: https://www.civilclick.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/damp-prevention-by-cavity-wall.jpg?ezimgfmt=ng:webp/ngcb3)

Appendix 3: Green Building Components

Components or Elements of Green Building-Material, Water, Energy Health

(Source: https://i2.wp.com/theconstructor.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/energy-systems-in-green-building.png?fit=668%2C293&ssl=1)

Appendix 4: Fire Standards of NHBC

6.3.6 Fire resistance - NHBC Standards 2021 NHBC Standards 2021

(Source: https://nhbc-standards.co.uk/wp-content/blogs.dir/5/files/9.1.2.a.ii-01.jpg)

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