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Comparative Analysis Of Job Satisfaction And Motivational Factors Of Employees In Public Versus Private Organisations Assignment Sample

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Comparative Analysis Of Job Satisfaction And Motivational Factors Of Employees In Public Versus Private Organisations Assignment Sample

Abstract

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In the first chapter of this study, the aim, purpose, objective and research question for the progress of this research has been included. This chapter also focuses on the significance of the research, the problem statement and the rationale of this research.  Further, this study has ended with a brief summary of everything that has been done in this chapter including the evaluation of the background of the study.

Chapter two of the study is on the literature review where various models and theories under the job satisfaction, performance and motivation have been discussed. Models like Emotional Dissonance and Social Interaction Model are taken in order to discuss the nature of the job satisfaction and performance. The learning theory of this whole paper has been discussed in this chapter creating more space to learn about the advantages and difficulties of the performance level with the organizational workplace.

Chapter three of the study has provided an overview of the methods used in the concerned study. Positivism philosophy, deductive approach and descriptive design are implicated in the current study. Information has been collected from both primary and secondary sources. The primary data has been collected from 51 public and private sector employees of the UK by conducting an online survey through developing a close-ended questionnaire. In order to select the participants of the survey, a simple random probability technique has been implicated. Statistical analysis has been performed for the information collected through survey by running tests like reliability, validity, correlation and regression. Thematic analysis has been performed for secondary information.

Chapter four that is the result of the study has given an overview of the results that are derived through conducting surveys and with the help of this survey data and information has been collected for completing the research.

Thematic analysis has been done in this chapter and the fifth section has discussed the discussion of the result.  

The last chapter has presented the summary of findings and as per the findings of the study, the satisfaction and motivation are important factors for public and private sector employees.

 

 

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION.. 7

1.1 Introduction. 7

1.2 Background. 7

1.3 Problem statement 8

1.4 Purpose of study. 8

1.5 Rationale. 9

1.6 Aim.. 9

1.7 Research Objectives. 9

1.8 Research Questions. 9

1.9 Significance of study. 10

1.10 Summary. 10

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW... 11

2.1 Introduction. 11

2.2 Critical analysis. 11

2.3 Conclusion. 18

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY.. 19

3.1 Introduction. 19

3.2 Research philosophy. 19

3.3 Research approach. 20

3.4 Research design. 22

3.5 Data collection method. 23

3.6 Data analysis method. 24

3.7 Research instrument 25

3.8 Samplingmethod. 25

3.9 Ethical consideration. 26

3.10 Research limitations. 26

3.11 Time plan. 27

3.12 Summary. 27

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS. 28

4.1 Introduction. 28

4.2 Primary data analysis. 28

4.3 Secondary data analysis. 35

4.4 Summary. 37

CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSIONS. 38

CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION.. 40

6.1 Summary of findings. 40

6.2 Linking with objectives. 40

6.3 Recommendations. 42

6.4 Limitations. 43

6.5 Future scope. 43

6.6 Conclusion. 44

Reference list 45

Appendices. 50

Appendix 1: Ethics approval form.. 50

Section A: Nature of Project 50

Section B: Handling Primary Data. 52

Section C: Participant Information. 53

Section D: Data collection, storage and dissemination. 53

Section E: Checklist and declarations. 55

Appendix 2: Gantt chart 57

Appendix 3: Questionnaire. 58

 

 

List of figures

Figure 2.3: Conceptual Framework. 13

Figure 3.2: Advantage of using positivism as the philosophy of study. 20

Figure 3.3: Importance of involving deductive as the study approach. 21

Figure 3.4: Advantage of incorporating descriptive design in a study. 22

Figure 3.5: Importance of using mixed data. 23

Figure 3.6: Data Analysis method. 24

Figure 3.8: Importance of involving “Simple random technique” in the current study. 25

Figure 4.2.1: Age. 28

Figure 4.2.2: Gender 29

 

 

List of tables

Table 4.2.3: Validity. 29

Table 4.2.4: Reliability. 30

Table 4.2.5.1: Normality. 30

Table 4.2.5.2: Normality. 30

Table 4.2.5.3: Normality. 31

Table 4.2.5.4: Normality. 31

Table 4.2.6: Correlations. 33

Table 4.2.7.1: Model Summary. 34

Table 4.2.7.2: ANOVA.. 34

Table 4.2.7.3: Coefficients. 35

 

 

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction

The motivation among the employees in an organization plays an important role in the achievement of organizational productivity.  In this study, an analysis has been done on the satisfaction and factors that give motivation to the employees in an organization with the consideration of private and public sectors. In this chapter, the study has been introduced for the understanding of the reader. This includes the background of the study, the issues faced in the workplace in this area, the purpose of conducting this research and the rationale. In addition to this, the aim of this research, research objective, questions and the significance of the conduction of this study has been included. Moreover, this chapter has been ended with a summary of the entire chapter.

1.2 Background

The level of motivation determines the outcome of the tasks that are being done by them and helps in the improvisation of the quality of the tasks. In addition to this, the factors that help in the inculcation of motivation among the employees play a vital role in the derivation of job satisfaction. In such a case, one of the biggest factors that make the employees motivated is the frequency at which recognition for hard work is provisioned to the employees. About 70% of employees are motivated due to recognition of hard work at the workplace (Hwang et al. 2021).

In addition to this, about 60% of the employees are motivated by the celebration of the hard work by their managers in the workplace (Giuliani et al. 2019). This celebration encompasses the provisioning of incentives, rewards and increments based on their productivity. More than 50% of employees find motivation from them engaged in the important processes of the organization. This is because the inculcation of engagement among the employees adds the trust of the employees in the administration of the organization. In addition to this, the satisfaction of employees in the private and the public sector varies from each other.

The government in the UK has added 110,000 jobs, unlike the private sector where they have cut out 6.9 million jobs since the beginning of the recession (Rolle and O’Hagan, 2018). The satisfaction of employees in the public sector is more than the satisfaction of jobs in the private sector.

1.3 Problem statement

In concern to this topic of comparing the factors of motivation and job satisfaction among the employees in the private and public sector, there are various issues. Among the various issues, one is that the private sector has been cutting down jobs and expelling employees with short notice. In addition to this, they are making the employees work for longer hours than normal (Martynowska et al. 2020). Moreover, the Covid-19 pandemic has made the private and the public sector have been on the verge of making their employees lose their jobs and the salary structure has been cut down to cope up with the lowering of the economy.

Moreover, Brexit has allowed several challenges to pop up in the lives of the employees in both the private and the public sector (Alabrese et al. 2019). The separation of the European Union from the UK has made the employees in the private and the public sector in the UK more insecure about the stability in their jobs. Further, the recession has been affected more by the consequences of Brexit; this has also taken a toll on the maintenance of the interpersonal relationships among the employees and their authority. In addition to this, the managers did try to maintain the interpersonal relationships of the employees by conduction of meetings (Zhang et al. 2020). However, according to the employees, these meetings remained ineffective and failed to meet their needs of job satisfaction. 

1.4 Purpose of study

Having the employees motivated is important for the organization to have improved productivity. The improvisation in the productivity of the organization and each employee helps in the increase in the overall profitability of the organization. In this study, the motivational factors that relate to the analytical comparison of job satisfaction in the public and private sectors in the UK. The purpose of conducting this study is to focus on the motivational factors of the employees. The outcomes derived from the conduction of this study will help in the improvisation of the motivation factors in an organization. This will also focus on the comparison of both the private and public sectors and the satisfaction of jobs among their employees in the UK.

1.5 Rationale

The concern of the issues discussed in the problem statement of this chapter is the loss of jobs by the employees in the UK. This is due to the collaborated result of Brexit, recession and the lowering of the economy due to the current pandemic situation. This is an issue as the loss of jobs causes uncertainty in the lives of the people to survive in the competitive situation.

The uncertainty of jobs among the employees has made the entire nation suffer at a decreased level with insecurity, sadness and uncertainty at the current times.

Moreover, uncertainty caused by the Covid-19 pandemic has led to the creation of tension among the masses in the UK (Said and El-Shafei, 2021). This is because at this time when people are in need of enough money to keep their immunity strong and prevent the infection it is an issue that people are additionally losing their source of income. This study has focused on the improvisation of factors of motivation of employees in both the private and public sectors in the UK. The researcher has focused mainly on the evaluation and comparison of the satisfaction of jobs in the organizations belonging to the private and the public sectors in the UK.

1.6 Aim

The aim of this study is to analyse the motivational factors in both the private and public sectors to determine their job satisfaction.

1.7 Research Objectives

  • To focus on the factors of employee motivation
  • To analyze the job satisfaction in employees in public and private sectors
  • To evaluate the relationship between employee motivation and job satisfaction
  • To emphasize the needs of employee motivation and job satisfaction
  • What are the factors of employee motivation?
  • How do employees have job satisfaction in the public and private sectors?
  • What is the relation between employee motivation and job satisfaction?
  • What are the needs of employee motivation and job satisfaction?

1.8 Research Questions

1.9 Significance of study

Motivation in the employees can be defined as the level of energy, enthusiasm, creativity and willingness to progress with a certain organization. The significance of this research is to focus on the evaluation of the motivational factors in employees. The factors include the provision of rewards, recognition and engagement in the workplace to increase the motivation of the employees and increase satisfaction. The primary significance of this study is to evaluate the drives that help an organization maintain the employee motivation factors. Their understanding of the need and strategies to improve the motivating factors of the employees will help the employees have increased overall productivity. This will also improve the overall profitability of the sector in procuring and utilizing the productivity of each employee.

Moreover, this study will also emphasize contrasting and analysing the level of job satisfaction and employee motivation in the private and public sectors in the UK. The significance of the conduct of this study is to focus on the various factors that have led the organizations to lack their maintenance of employee satisfaction. The level of job satisfaction also helps in the determination of the retention and turnover of employees in an organization. In order to evaluate the level of employee retention and turnover also determines the level of satisfaction of jobs in an organization. These are the things that have been evaluated in this study insignificance.

1.10 Summary

The first chapter deals with the comparison and the analysis of employee motivation and their factors and job satisfaction in the public and the private sectors. In this chapter, the aim, objects and research questions have been mentioned. In addition to this, the purpose of the research has been discussed with the provision of rationale, the problem statement and the significance of conducting this study. Further, this research has been conducted by the researcher for the evaluation of the job satisfaction of the employees in the private and the public sector in the UK.

However, it has been found from the background of the research that people seem to be more satisfied with the public sector jobs. This is because the jobs in the public sector offer more stability and better payrolls. The needs of this study are to analyse the satisfaction of jobs in the employees and compare it with the consideration of the private and public sector.


 

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

The biggest finding in the study is based on the satisfaction of the job as denoted by the studies under Hawthorn. Primarily, these studies are based upon the scholar Elton Mayo from the Harvard Business School making an insight on the effects of several conditions mainly illumination on the productivity of the workers. This study will eventually show the transformation in the conditions of the work while escalating the productivity of the work temporarily. Later, it has been found that the escalation occurred not from the new conditions rather from the observation knowledge (Bernardo et al. 2020). The research finding is based on the rigid proof of the importance of the work of the people other than the pay that has paved the lane in the investigation of other features in the satisfaction of the job.

2.2 Critical analysis

According to Oldham and Hackman, the proposal has been done on the model of Job Characteristics that has been widely used as a structure in learning about the study of certain features of the job. This also lays an impact on the outcomes of the job that also includes the satisfaction of the job. The Job Characteristics Model defines that there are 5 features within the structure of the job; they are the identity of the task, the significance of the task, feedback to a variety of skills and autonomy (Boamah et al. 2018). These features have laid a huge impact on the states of psychology within the workplace culture of the organisation defining the knowledge of the authentic outcome, experienced meaningfulness and experience results of the responsibility. This has in turn resulted in the influence of the outcomes of the work through motivation for the work, absenteeism and satisfaction for the job. The 5 core characteristics of the job can be integrated into forming a motivation for potential scoring of a job that can be used as a platform of the process in how it can affect the attitudes of the employees and their behaviours. Hypothetically, in one of the universities in Germany, the study has been conducted based on the satisfaction of the job, the performance of the job and ambivalence of the job that was evaluated through intersecting. Furthermore, the employment of the scale is done in measure of the job satisfaction having a similar and wider scope as the performance of the job (Judge et al. 2020). In a very certain way, both in the socio-psychological research and in the research of the job attitude it has been debated that it is very significant in measuring attitudes making the behaviour compatible on an ordinary level. It has been suggested that behavioural attitudes are measured in a similar stage of abstraction.

The representation of the overall performance of the job signifies the assessment based on global behaviour. The measurement of the broad scope is within the measurement of the attitudes of the job. The scale of the overall job satisfaction was employed in the measurement of the satisfaction of the job instead of the scale that has been assessed for the satisfaction of the individual with several facets of the job. The focus of the latter type of the scale is on the process of cognition, the item set of the OJS (On Job Satisfaction) mainly highlights the process of effectiveness and the process of cognition of the job attitude of an individual (Ghaffari et al. 2017). In contrast to the job ambivalence, the items have been included that involves the tapping of both the cognitive and affective process in obtaining a broad measurement of the subjective of an individual experiencing the tension occurring due to an individual’s job. The analytical work is done on the behaviour of the individual within the workplace environment resulting in a better outcome. The exploration of this research is on the variables that affect the involvement of the employee (Fogaça et al. 2018). The findings of the empirical research are on the high intensity of the market that renders a positive impact on the involvement of the employee; whereas, the low intensity of the internal marketing creates a negative impact on the involvement of the employee. The effect of the sentimental relationship on the involvement of the employee is positive and very clear. The traits of the personality as revealed by the internal control consist of an immense level of involvement rather than those with the external control.

Figure 2.3: Conceptual Framework

(Source: Created by author)

There are several ways in measuring satisfaction for a job; however one of the general methods of collecting information regarding job satisfaction is the Likert scale. The prediction of job ambivalence is done on the relationship between job performance and job satisfaction. However, the higher rate of job satisfaction is related to the higher rating of the trainer of the performance of the job of the individual (Asghar and Oino, 2017). This is when the experience of the individual is based on the small ambivalence nature of the job, the performance of the job and satisfaction of the job. They are very much related to what has been developed while doing the study of the research on the relationship between attitude and behaviour. The job attitude of the individual is very much related to the level of ambivalence in the attitude towards the work. Hence, the present result suggests that the research in future is on the satisfaction and performance of the job that may profit out of the ambivalence of the job measurement with relation to the job satisfaction. The current finding of the research is on the suggestion on the attitudes of the behavioural pattern of the job on the contingency of the characteristics of the attitudes. For example, the importance of attitude might play a proper role in the satisfaction of the performance of the job (Findlay et al. 2017). The importance of attitude means the sense of the significance of an individual that he or she relates to his or her attitude. The centrality of work is referred to as the level of importance that the job plays in the life of an individual. The attitudinal behaviour of the workers increases the level of confidence and dignity within the workplace culture of the organisation.

The job ambivalence is negatively correlated with job satisfaction and this where the employees with a lower level of job satisfaction are more ambivalent on their job performance than those of the individuals who have achieved higher levels of job satisfaction (Wang et al. 2020). According to this, it is very much common in the finding that most of the people are highly satisfied with their job. The categorisation of the satisfaction with the job is skimmed down with the scoring level of most of the people achieving the midpoint of the satisfaction scale of the job. As a result, these individuals are taken into consideration in having comparatively low levels of job satisfaction in the ratio of scaling (Hubschmid-Vierheilig et al. 2020). Firstly, the scoring may engender indifference in the job attitude or may create a neutral attitude towards the pattern of the job. The low satisfaction of the job signifies both the negative and positive perspective towards the job. Secondly, the moderate case of attitudes of the job shows the ambivalence of the job or a tussled attitude of the individual towards his or her job (Alipour et al. 2021). According to this, the low job satisfaction reflects the co-existence of both the negative and positive perspective of an individual.

The connection, coordination and communication between subordinate and superior are very much important in creating an influence on the satisfaction of the job in the workplace of the organisation. The perseverance of the behaviour of the supervisor by the subordinates can pose a negative or positive effect on the satisfaction of the job (Andela et al. 2018). The behaviour within the communication includes eye contact, gestures, voice expression and facial expression. Non-verbal communication denotes a major but core role in the interactions within the individuals through interpersonal activities. The non-verbal expression consists of the impression, social influence, deception, emotional expression and formation (O’Brien et al. 2019). The immediacy of the non-verbal expression from the supervisor helps in increasing the involvement of the interpersonal activities with his or her employees posing an impact on the satisfaction over the job. It is how the supervisor is connecting with his or her employees and the level of communication must be more important than the verbal expression.

Any of the individuals who think negatively about his or their supervisor have their willingness in communicating with their supervisors in a very limited way. On the other hand, the positive thinking about the supervisors by the individuals poses a good level of communication leading to the job satisfaction and development of the workplace environment of the organisation (Anwar et al. 2019). Hence, it is very important to have a good relationship between the supervisor and his or her subordinates in the workplace culture of the organisation. The positive feedback could be received by the supervisor if he or she uses the method of non-verbal transparency, friendliness and usage in the lines of open communication. On the other hand, negative feedback could be received by the supervisor if he or she is very anti-social, freak, rude, strict, unfriendly, and has less willingness to communicate or coordinate with his or her subordinates (Sayyadi, 2020). It is all about the emotions and mood that helps in cumulating the effectiveness of communication between the subordinates and supervisor. However, there is a huge difference between mood and emotion; the reaction of mood is temporary and one cannot judge an individual based on his or her mood (Algharabat et al. 2018). On the other hand, emotions depend on the characteristics of an individual and it is quite intense; it is either one has it or does not have it. Emotions are moreover temporary in relation to the behavioural conditioning of an individual.

It is one of the important concerns of the working of an individual in the prospect of the modern organisation in managing the demands of communication. The demands of communication can now be categorised into the communication load that defines the complexities and rates of the inputs in communication that render in a perfect time. The communication load can now be categorised into two types; they are communication under-load and communication overload. These two types play a huge role in the satisfaction of the job and the performance of the job. Communication overload is defined as receiving a load of messages in a short time span that might result in processing incomplete data, where the individual faces more confusions while receiving those messages (Strielkowski et al. 2017). This process helps in giving an individual style of motivation and work in completing a job. The heavy rate of inputs or messages might be positively or negatively taken by an individual regarding the satisfaction of the job. On the other hand, the under-load of the level of messages in communication is giving space to the individual in thinking and taking decisions accordingly. Based on the ideas of communication overload and under load, it is about an individual who does not have the ability in processing the inputs they become quite tense leading to lowering the level of job satisfaction.

There are two types of models that help in the understanding of the regulation of emotion relating to the satisfaction of jobs; they are Emotional Dissonance and Social Interaction Model. The social interaction model is based on the perspective of the emotions of the workers in regulating the process of communication. The feedback generated from interacting socially during the encountering of interpersonal communication laid an impact on the satisfaction of the job of an individual. The performance of emotional labour is on the production of the desired level of feedback that helps in increasing the satisfaction of the job within the organisational workplace. Emotional dissonance is referred to as the position of the confusion between the disclosures of emotions publicly that is externally and a personalised view of emotions that are happening internally within an individual. The exhaling of emotions is related to the emotional dissonance of an individual that might give a poor performance in job satisfaction with the workplace environment of private and public sectors.

The analytical usage of job satisfaction remains a very important tool in knowing the feelings of the employees on their satisfactory level of jobs. This analytical tool helps in determining how the employees are feeling doing their jobs and about the rate of satisfaction, rate of absenteeism, and organisational citizenship. Furthermore, the satisfaction of a job can be initiated through the variables of the personalities and their relationship with each other. Individuals getting deviated from their work are a huge crisis that has been indicated while analysing the performance of the individuals within the organisational workplace. One of the most common findings during the time of the research is about the interrelation of life satisfaction with job satisfaction. This interrelation represents those individuals who are satisfied with their jobs and must be satisfied with their life (Marginson, 2018). It is also on the part of the organisation where the interrelation of the job satisfaction also stands with the productivity of the job meaning which the productivity of the organisation will enhance. Many literary and academic reviews are based on the correlation of job performance with job satisfaction. Until and unless an individual is satisfied with his or her job, he or she would not be able to give his or her performance in the job.

There has been a current period of analysis where the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance is done and it is seen that these two are interdependent in calculating the complexity of the job. The satisfaction during the job also presents a relationship having an intention to quit, and it is found in most of the researches that the level of job satisfaction poses a high intensity on quitting or staying in the organisation. In some of the current research, it has been mentioned that an individual has his or her intensity to quit due to the poor culture within the organisation, job orientation based on poor performance, and job deviances. In a nutshell, it can be concluded that interrelation of the satisfaction is on the productivity and it is always not necessary that it is not direct and that can be whelmed through other construction related to the work. It should not be granted as a universal truth that happy workers will always be productive worker. The national contribution under the United Kingdom defines a few of the factors that help in contributing to the satisfaction of job. There are various ways that pose positive influences on individuals on their job satisfaction; they are main variables in finance, orientation of work, hours of working, well-beings, mobility within the job and the market.

The indirect measurements are developed in representing the features of the qualitative nature within the workplace environment of the organisation but it will remain insignificant. There are various other vital factors that are related to the contractual characters of the job. It is all about giving proper packages to the employees, incentives, rewards, promotions, permanence, and increment in the salary. Through this, the engagement and job satisfaction score will be escalated that will influence the individual’s job performance. The performance and the level of satisfaction with the job will help the employees in mainly building their career up in an efficient manner. Motivation from the superior will add a feather to the performance of an employee because they will get satisfied and their level of confidence will increase and hence this will give benefit to the productivity of the organisation. It is very important to consider the facets of the United Kingdom, that there is a need in controlling the influences within the workplace environment and gathering more stale survey information on the quality of issues of the working life that are taken as the two vital segments for addressing.

Sometimes the satisfaction of a job depends on the rate and quality of the job. In 2001, the European Council stated that there exists no correlation between job quality and job satisfaction. According to ISSP 1997, there are some countries that give good wages, promotion, proper timing of work and incentives for which the quality of the job is escalated. This is why the employees and employers within an organisation get motivated and confident in working while proper job satisfaction is placed. The feature of the job mainly thrives on how the superiors are treating or communicating with their subordinates. Communication plays a very important role in maintaining the quality of job. There are various organisations that have good workplace environments but there are no chances of communication with the superiors. The culmination and initiation of communication within the workplace environment create a healthy environment in formulating a good quality job. The level of job satisfaction could be increased when it comes to the change in the job. The workers feel challenged in adapting to new work and environment and focusing on the same to work more on it.

2.3 Conclusion

The difference between the private sector and public sector will always remain under debate. Under the public sector, the organisations are mainly owned by the government of the respective countries. There are several departments and sub-departments under the public sector organisation; for the very first instance the public sectors might seem to be much organised while eventually, it creates a huge problem in its future. On the other hand, organisations under private are also divided into several departments and sub-departments but they work in a collective manner (Fortin et al. 2017). The decentralisation of the departments under the public sector organisations is very strict and as they are separated from one another they do not collide with each other. The power dynamics of the private sector organisation is quite high because people work together and which is why the level of communication within the people working under private sectors are very high. The timing factor within the public sector is fixed but it totally depends upon the employer of the private sector organisation in controlling the time of their employers.

 

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

It is important to provide a thorough description of different methods used in a particular study and the methodology chapter presents this information. This chapter is important as it takes a pivotal role in choosing the most effective techniques for conducting a study. In order to meet the requirements of research, an appropriate choice of methods is necessary while the chances of errors in the study are also reduced with the use of proper methodologies. This particular study has put in use "positivism philosophy”, “deductive approach” and descriptive as the design besides collecting information from both “primary” and “secondary” sources.

3.2 Research philosophy

A specific philosophy is selected for determining the nature, source and development of knowledge regarding the topic of study (Saunders et al. 2009). In the current study, positivism has been incorporated as the philosophy besides avoiding the other two philosophies such as “interpretivism” and “realism”. This is because positivism philosophy can be helpful for collecting the most relevant information related to the satisfaction and motivation of employees. Moreover, the comparison of satisfaction and motivation among the public and private sector employees can be understood with the involvement of this philosophy.

Figure 3.2: Advantage of using positivism as the philosophy of study

(Source: Saunders et al. 2009)

As per the opinion of Park et al. (2020), positivism especially focuses on collecting statistical as well as factual information relevant to the study. Thus, the implication of this philosophy in the concerned study not only has reduced the collection of proper information related to motivation of employees and their satisfaction. The chances of bias in the collection of information process are also decreased with the implication of this philosophy. On the other hand, the use of realism and interpretivism has been avoided as these two can increase the complexity of the research process. Positivism has ensured precision and study validity besides reducing complexity in the process of data collection in an effective manner in the concerned study. The precision in information collection has been helpful for meeting the objectives of the study and answering the questions of the research.

3.3 Research approach

Approach of study is important for choosing a stepwise measure for collecting and evaluating information relevant to the study. The concerned study has focused on analysing job satisfaction and factors of motivation among employees for which deduction of established theory is important. The well-accepted theories are considered in the case of the "deductive approach" and then the findings from the collected information are aligned with these established theories (Saunders et al. 2009). Hence, this approach has been put in use in the concerned study as it assists in analysing the already available pattern of knowledge regarding difference in motivation as well as satisfaction in public and private organisations. Employees from both of these sectors are involved in this aspect to collect the statistical information within the lesser available time.

Figure 3.3: Importance of involving deductive as the study approach

(Source: Woiceshyn and Daellenbach, 2018)

Deductive is a less time-consuming approach which is important for the current study as it is a cross-sectional study. As opined by Woiceshyn and Daellenbach (2018), deductive approach assists in getting to the point answers while the generation of useful information is ensured through a downward process. Hence, an understanding of the motivation, as well as satisfaction of employees and their difference in the private and public sector, can be understood using this approach. The inductive approach has been avoided as it particularly focuses on generating new theories that are not necessary for the current study. Contrarily, the deductive approach helps in re-establishing the already accepted theory by involving the current and relevant information related to the study topic.

3.4 Research design

Design of the study is an important aspect to be considered as highlights the entire framework for conducting a study. The concerned study has proceeded by implicating descriptive as the design of study while the implication of explanatory as exploratory has been avoided. From the viewpoint of Abutabenjeh and Jaradat (2018), descriptive is a design that helps to analyse views of different people. Thus, the perspective of people from the public and private sector has been analysed to understand their viewpoint towards satisfaction and motivating factors of employees.

Figure 3.4: Advantage of incorporating descriptive design in a study

(Source: Abutabenjeh and Jaradat, 2018)

The exploration of the underlying information pattern has become much easier while the reliability of the study has also been ensured with the implication of this design. As per the viewpoint of da Silva (2017), the validity of the study can be ensured with the involvement of descriptives as the research design as information collected using this design is easily generalisable. Exploratory and explanatory can increase study complexity and "Exploratory design" provides a major focus on the research background besides avoiding in-depth analysis which is not required in the current study. Hence, this design has been avoided from implicating in the current study. On the other hand, “explanatory design” is a difficult measure that increases difficulty for the researcher to reach the conclusion. However, any kind of difficulties can increase the time required for completing the study. Hence, this design has been avoided in the concerned study besides accepting the implication of descriptive as the design of this research.

3.5 Data collection method

Collection of relevant information is an important procedure for meeting the objectives of the study and answering the questions of the study. The concerned study has implicated a "mixed method" of data collection that is both secondary as well as primary sources are implicated for gathering information.

Figure 3.5: Importance of using mixed data

(Source: Fletcher, 2017)

Primary data collection is important as it can be helpful in gathering relevant information, enhancing study accuracy by analysing current trends (Stieglitz et al. 2018). Hence, the researcher has collected primary information from public and private sector employees by developing a close-ended questionnaire to gather the most relevant information related to the satisfaction and motivation of employees. Thus, the difference in the satisfaction of employees, as well as motivation factors in different sectors such as private and public can be understood in an effective manner. On the other hand, a secondary source is cost-effective, readily available and a time-saving method of gathering information (Attia and Edge, 2017). Hence, this method has been implicated for accumulating information from published sources like articles, books and journals related to study topics. The secondary type of information has also been helpful in the concerned study to support the findings from the primary sources.

3.6 Data analysis method

In this research, the methods used by the researcher for the conduction data analysis is for both the primary and the secondary data. The analysis of the primary data has been done with the conduction of a survey with the help of 51 participants and 8 questions (Miles et al. 2018). The survey was conducted with the participants of the survey who were selected by a random sampling method. The 8 questions were close-ended aiming at the query relates to the independent and the dependent variable of this research. In addition to this, the other two questions were related to the demographics based on age and gender.

 

Figure 3.6: Data Analysis method

Source: Created by author

The response of the participants was further analysed with the help of the SPSS software. In addition to this, the secondary data from the authentic bibliographical sources have been analysed with the help of thematic data analysis. This is done for a better understanding of the qualitative data collected for the bibliographical sources. Moreover, the primary data has been analysed with the help of SPSS and has been used as it helps in the better and accurate determination of statistics and analysis of data. 

3.7 Research instrument

In the conduction of this research, the instruments used for the collection of data and analysing them were SPSS software and survey monkey (Taber, 2018). SPSS has been chosen for the conduction of this research because this has helped the researcher in the inclusion of descriptive statistics, and tests of correlation. In addition to this, statistical software has also helped in the creation of statistics, analysing the decisions of management and performing the collection of data. Moreover, Survey Monkey has been used by the Researcher for the accurate derivation of the positive aspects of the response of the candidates.

This has also helped the researcher in a faster distribution and saving of cost and time for the conduction of the study. Moreover, a questionnaire has been used by the researcher to collect the primary data and some external resources like books, online journals and articles for the collection of the secondary data.

3.8 Samplingmethod

Figure 3.8: Importance of involving “Simple random technique” in the current study

(Source: Rahi, 2017)

In order to choose respondents for collecting information, the choice of a particular sampling technique is important. The current study has been proceeded by implicating the "Simple random sampling technique" for choosing the participants of the study. As mentioned by Rahi (2017), the bias during involving the candidates can be lowered with the involvement of “random technique”. Moreover, by incorporating this method, the researcher has provided an equal opportunity to all the private and public sector employees of the UK to be chosen as a sample. This method is also helpful in selecting a large number of people for accumulating information related to a study. Thus, the concerned study has involved 51 employees from the private and public sector of the UK to become the respondents of this study. Moreover, the use of this sampling method makes it easier to use as well as represent a large volume of population and hence, this method has been implicated in this study.

3.9 Ethical consideration

Different codes of conduct are considered during the research process to ensure the reliability of the study. In the concerned study, the researcher has avoided disclosing any personal information of the participants. With the maintenance of this process of respondents' anonymity, the researcher has ensured increasing participation from the respondents. The respondents have also been ensured through consent that their personal information would not be disclosed during or after the data collection process. Moreover, the participants have not been influenced to participate in the information collection process while no external pressure has been created on them during the process of information collection. The collected information has only been used for the purpose of study and commercialisation of information has been avoided. The "Data Protection Act, 2018" has been followed throughout the study (Legislation, 2021). The proper citation has been provided whenever information from secondary sources has been incorporated into the study [Refer to Appendix 1].

3.10 Research limitations

Some areas in the research are present that are restricted from scope and ability of information collection and this limits a study. In the concerned study, time is a factor of limitation as large scale study has been restricted due to time availability issues. The number of participants is also restricted to 51. The issue of reliability is also present as the respondents may provide biased information. Moreover, as this study is a non-funded study, some of the journals could not be accessed as that required extra cost for accessing the documents.

3.11 Time plan

[Refer to Appendix 2]

3.12 Summary

The current chapter has provided valuable insight into the important analytical tools and techniques involved in this study. The implication of "positivism philosophy" and "deductive approach" has helped in gathering factual and statistical information by deducing the available knowledge. “Descriptive design” has assisted in exploring different views of people and exploring the information pattern. Information has been accumulated from primary sources as it can be helpful for accessing the most relevant information while secondary sources have assisted in supporting the results from the primary sources. “Simple random probability techniques" has been involved in selecting participants of the study. Information collected through survey has been analysed using SPSS software while thematic analysis has been performed for the secondary information. The chapter has also presented research ethics and limitations of the concerned study. The publishing of personal information of participants has been avoided besides following the “Data Protection Act, 2018”. However, the limitations of the study include time as well as financial constraints that have restricted the findings of the concerned study.


 

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS

4.1 Introduction

Data analysis is considered to be a process of transforming, cleaning and modelling data for discovering useful information for making decisions on the basis of the topic that is job satisfaction and motivational factors in private and public organizations. This section is going to discuss age, gender, correlations, regressions, validity, reliability and normality for examining the variables in order to complete the research paper. Apart from these, primary data analysis tables, questions and the result of the questions are going to be mentioned in this part. In addition, discussion about the findings that come out from the questions has been broadly discussed.     

4.2 Primary data analysis

Demographic analysis

Figure 4.2.1: Age

                                                        (Source: Created by author)

In case of demographic analysis, it is seen that the age table has shown that 15 individuals have participated from the age group of 18-25, and the valid percent of this age group is 29.4. Besides that 14 people have participated in the age group 26-30.

Figure 4.2.2: Gender

                                                        (Source: Created by author)

In order to ethical consideration of the study, the researcher has considered gender as variable in measuring the impact of motivation in improving the satisfaction of employees. From the above figure, it can be said that female respondents have responded for 39.2% and make respondents have responded as 49%. On other hand, it has been identified that others gender have the least percentage of 11.8%.

Validity

KMO and Bartlett's Test

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.

.891

Bartlett's Test of Sphericity

Approx. Chi-Square

517.586

df

10

Sig.

.000

Table 4.2.3: Validity

                                                        (Source: Created by author)

The value of the validity test of sampling adequacy is 0.891 which is nearly equal to 1 and this suggests that the sample is adequate and the result of the test is valid. Moreover, the sig value of this test is 0.000 which is much lower as compared to 0.05. Hence, it can be said that the result of this test is acceptable.

Reliability

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's Alpha

N of Items

.986

5

Table 4.2.4: Reliability

                                                        (Source: Created by author)

The value of Cronbach alpha is 0.986 which is nearly equal to 1 and this suggests that the variables considered in the concerned study are reliable.

Normality

Tests of Normality

 

Do you agree that job satisfaction is important for employees in an organization?

Kolmogorov-Smirnova

Shapiro-Wilk

 

Statistic

df

Sig.

Statistic

df

Sig.

Do you agree that you struggle while managing your performance in the organisation that has affected your performance?

Strongly agree

.

14

.

.

14

.

Agree

.433

10

.000

.594

10

.000

Neutral

.

5

.

.

5

.

Disagree

.258

12

.026

.818

12

.015

Strongly disagree

.482

10

.000

.509

10

.000

Table 4.2.5.1: Normality

                                                        (Source: Created by author)

From the above table, it has been determined that for the first variable KS value is 0.482 for strongly disagree and SW value is 0.594 for agree.

Tests of Normality

 

How far do you agree that employee motivation is important for any kind of organization?

Kolmogorov-Smirnova

Shapiro-Wilk

 

Statistic

df

Sig.

Statistic

df

Sig.

Do you agree that you struggle while managing your performance in the organisation that has affected your performance?

Strongly agree

.

15

.

.

15

.

Agree

.455

8

.000

.566

8

.000

Neutral

.

6

.

.

6

.

Disagree

.225

15

.040

.881

15

.050

Strongly disagree

.

7

.

.

7

.

Table 4.2.5.2: Normality

                                                        (Source: Created by author)

From the above table it has been found that for the second variables SW value is 0.881 for disagree and the KS value is 0.455 for agree.

Tests of Normality

 

Do you agree that employee performance is affected by their job satisfaction in the organization?

Kolmogorov-Smirnova

Shapiro-Wilk

 

Statistic

df

Sig.

Statistic

df

Sig.

Do you agree that you struggle while managing your performance in the organisation that has affected your performance?

Strongly agree

.509

20

.000

.433

20

.000

Agree

.

5

.

.

5

.

Neutral

.

5

.

.

5

.

Disagree

.324

10

.004

.794

10

.012

Strongly disagree

.448

11

.000

.572

11

.000

Table 4.2.5.3: Normality

                                                        (Source: Created by author)

From the above figure it has been determined that for the third KS value is 0.509 for strongly agreed and SW value is 0.794 for disagree.

Tests of Normality

 

How far do you agree that employee working is affected by employee motivation factors in the organisation?

Kolmogorov-Smirnova

Shapiro-Wilk

 

Statistic

df

Sig.

Statistic

df

Sig.

Do you agree that you struggle while managing your performance in the organisation that has affected your performance?

Strongly agree

.538

18

.000

.253

18

.000

Agree

.

10

.

.

10

.

Neutral

.279

12

.011

.784

12

.006

Disagree

.414

9

.000

.617

9

.000

Strongly disagree

.

2

.

 

 

 

Table 4.2.5.4: Normality

                                                        (Source: Created by author)

From the above table it has been found that for the fourth question SW value is 0.784 for neutral and the KS value is 0.538 for strongly disagreed.               

Correlation

The result of the correlation tests shows that most of the values are nearly 1. Thus, a strong correlation is present between the variables considered in this study. The correlation values of the first variable with the other four variables are 0.979, 0.971, 0.955 and 0.908 respectively. Therefore, it can be said that employee motivation and their satisfaction are two important aspects for a successful venture of a company. Moreover, it can also be said that employee satisfaction can negatively affect the performance of employees in an organisation. The correlation values of the second variable with the other variables are 0.979, 0.958, 0.946 and 0.895 respectively. Thus, it can be said that employee motivation is equally important along with the employee satisfaction in any type of organisation. The working culture of the entire organization is affected by the reduced level of employee motivation within the organisation; context.

Correlations

 

Do you agree that job satisfaction is important for employees in an organization?

How far do you agree that employee motivation is important for any kind of organization?

Do you agree that employee performance is affected by their job satisfaction in the organization?

How far do you agree that employee working is affected by employee motivation factors in the organisation?

Do you agree that you struggle while managing your performance in the organisation that has affected your performance?

Do you agree that job satisfaction is important for employees in an organization?

Pearson Correlation

1

.979**

.971**

.955**

.908**

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

.000

.000

.000

.000

N

51

51

51

51

51

How far do you agree that employee motivation is important for any kind of organization?

Pearson Correlation

.979**

1

.958**

.946**

.895**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

 

.000

.000

.000

N

51

51

51

51

51

Do you agree that employee performance is affected by their job satisfaction in the organization?

Pearson Correlation

.971**

.958**

1

.960**

.911**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

 

.000

.000

N

51

51

51

51

51

How far do you agree that employee working is affected by employee motivation factors in the organisation?

Pearson Correlation

.955**

.946**

.960**

1

.938**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

 

.000

N

51

51

51

51

51

Do you agree that you struggle while managing your performance in the organisation that has affected your performance?

Pearson Correlation

.908**

.895**

.911**

.938**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

.000

 

N

51

51

51

51

51

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Table 4.2.6: Correlations

(Source: Created by author)

The correlation values of the third variable with the other variables are 0.971, 0.958, 0.960 and 0.911 respectively. This result depicts that a direct relationship is present between the employee satisfactions and working performance of employees within any type of organization be it private or public. On the other hand, the correlation values of the fourth variable with other variables are 0.955, 0.946, 0.960 and 0.938 respectively. This result suggests that employee working is largely affected by the presence of different motivation factors within the organisation. The motivation factors can be of different types such as reward system, g food organisational environment and availability of proper information. Finally, the correlation values of the last variable with the other variables are 0.908, 0.895, 0.911 and 0.938 respectively. Hence, it can be said that most of organisations face challenges while managing organisational performance due to reduced employee performance and motivation. It is important for the management of both private and public companies to develop effective strategies based on which they can improve employee motivation and their satisfaction level.  

Multiple regressions

Model Summaryb

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

Durbin-Watson

1

.939a

.881

.871

.514

.615

Table 4.2.7.1: Model Summary

(Source: Created by author)

From the model summary table, it has been identified that the value of R is 0.939 and on other hand, the value for R square has been determined as 0.881 respectively. It can also be seen that the value for Durbin-Watson is 0.615 which proves the fact that this table is acceptable in this research.

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

90.207

4

22.552

85.410

.000b

Residual

12.146

46

.264

 

 

Total

102.353

50

 

 

 

Table 4.2.7.2: ANOVA

(Source: Created by author)

From the ANOVA table, it can be said that the significance value is constant due to which the results are found to be effective. It can be said that this table provides better knowledge of being interrelated with each other.

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

-.113

.172

 

-.660

.513

Do you agree that job satisfaction is important for employees in an organization?

.156

.287

.167

.544

.589

How far do you agree that employee motivation is important for any kind of organization?

-.072

.247

-.075

-.292

.772

Do you agree that employee performance is affected by their job satisfaction in the organization?

.057

.209

.065

.272

.787

How far do you agree that employee working is affected by employee motivation factors in the organisation?

.902

.224

.786

4.025

.000

Table 4.2.7.3: Coefficients

(Source: Created by author)

From the table of coefficients, it has been identified that 0.167, -0.075, 0.065 and 0.786 respectively. In that respect, it can be said that this research provides a better coefficient level that determines the correlation between variables that have been selected for the research.

4.3 Secondary data analysis

Importance of job satisfaction and the factors affecting job satisfaction of employees

Job satisfaction in an organization including both the private and public sector plays a major role. It has been found that job satisfaction has been connected to several variables such as absenteeism, productivity, and turnover and job satisfaction is believed to be important. It can be said that Job satisfaction in an organization helps to lower turnover, increase the satisfaction level of customers, and higher productivity (Sharma, 2017). It also helps to gain higher revenues for the organization that will help a company or any organization to enhance the share market and to lead towards the aim of the company.

It has been seen that there are several factors that can influence the level of job satisfaction of an individual. Several factors including the level of benefits and pay, the quality of leadership, working conditions, social relationship, the felt fairness of the system of promotion. Apart from these, the challenges and interests the job makes and the clarity of the job requirements or description are included in the affecting factors (Agbozo et al. 2017). Apart from these, there are other factors including the culture of the organization. Management style, involvement of employees, autonomous and empowerment workgroups that is able to influence the level of satisfaction of an individual. It has been said that job satisfaction of employees can improve the quality of service and increase the level of satisfaction of an individual. A good work environment and good work conditions are able to increase the level of job satisfaction of an individual; this will help to increase the performance of an individual.

Importance of motivation and importance of motivational factors that impact satisfaction of employees

Motivation is considered to be a phenomenon that is needed in both public and private organizations. It has been found that the presence of brilliant and dedicated employees in a company needs more attention for increasing the productivity level of the company. It has been found that motivation in an organization helps to improve the level of the performance of an individual, helps to reduce the turnover rate of employees, and helps to lead to a stable workforce (Roman et al. 2017). Apart from these, it has been found that motivations important to an individual as motivation help to achieve personal goal of an individual, it helps to gain job satisfaction, and it also helps to self development of an individual and it also helps to reduce absenteeism in an organization (Shah and Asad, 2018).

The type of public service motivation is relevant for public servants as it impacts performance and behaviour in the public sector, nonprofit and private sectors. It has been found that public service motivation contributes to retaining and attracting in the provision of public service (Vlacsekova and Mura, 2017). Apart from these, it has been seen that there are several factors that are affecting motivation of an individual of a company. Factors are including recognition and reward, development, leadership, balanced work life and work environment that help to motivate employees in an organization (Vero and Puka, 2017). It can be said that by motivating employees an organization can enhance the productivity level of the company's well as the organization or the company can enhance the share market which will be helpful and fruitful for the company. It has been found that there is a need to motivate employees for the growth of the company and every employee should motivate one another and should not demotivate others (Hitka et al. 2018) It has been found that salaries, low wages, the position of low status, and conditions of physical working are considered to be common reasons that cause problems in the business of the service sector.

Relationship between salary satisfaction and job satisfaction 

Salary or pay is a form of compensation that is episodically provided by a company to its employees that is clearly specified in the employment contract. Salary can also be thought of as the cost of acquiring human resources for running operations and systems, and they are assigned to various positions, with the employer bearing personnel disbursement or salary expense (Chin, 2018). Wage, pay or salary is regarded as a major incentive to encourage employees and their actions against the employer's objectives. All other social factors are critical for improving and making work satisfying for workers, but pay satisfaction is a must (Lien, 2017). Pay gratification is responsible for the adjustment between real pay and the sum of pay a person got from his/her employer. Employment satisfaction is a much broader construct than salary gratification (Iqbal et al. 2017)          

4.4 Summary

It has been found that in this part gender, age, correlations, regressions, validity, normality and reliability has been tested for gaining knowledge about timely topics. In addition, variables and invariables that are taken for completing the research paper have been discussed here. Motivation and job satisfaction plays a major role in an organization and it will help employees to enhance the productivity level for the growth of the company. Apart from these, secondary data analysis has been determined for getting the results that are related to the topic of the research paper. It will help to understand the facts that are related to the topic.       


 

CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSIONS

For doing the research paper, a survey has been conducted among 51 employees for collecting the experiences of an individual and the point of view of an individual. It can be said that it has been helpful for the research paper for collecting information and data that are needed to know for researching the topic. It has been found that motivation is important in an organization for the development of an organization and it has been found that motivation plays a major role in an organization as well as in an individual life also.

Thematic secondary has been analysed for completing the research paper. With the help of thematic analysis, the researcher can get knowledge, information, data that are needed to be known for an individual. Through analysing thematically the researcher has got qualitative data in many fields and disciplines. Apart from these, it will also help other people to understand the need for motivation and job satisfaction of an organization for the growth of t6he organization. It will also help others to understand the need of giving motivation for encouraging employees in order to enhance the productivity level of the company.

Apart from these, it can be said that by conducting survey experiences and the point of view of an individual has been gained that will be helpful to understand the state of employees in public and private organization. Besides, it can be said that by conducting surveys an individual can take individual decisions for a particular matter and can create a new service. In addition, it has been found that an indicial can get knowledge and data that are derived from analyzing and observing the behaviour of an individual. It has been found that for conducting surveys several demographics have been mentioned in the part of results. Demographics such as age, gender, correlations, regressions, validity, reliability and normality have been described for examining the variables in order to complete the research paper.

Besides, it has been found that pay satisfaction and job satisfaction are correlated with each other. This study will also help others to know the importance of motivation and job satisfaction as the study has conducted surveys among 51 employees of the UK who are working in the private and public sector. Apart from these, 8 questions have been chosen including 6 variable questions and 2 demographic questions. Through conducting this survey several data and information have been collected that are important for this study. With the help of secondary analysis by thematic analysis, the importance of motivation and job satisfaction has been recognized and with this knowledge an individual can implement strategies for the growth of an organisation.                                


 

CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION

6.1 Summary of findings

According to the findings of the study, it can be said that both types of organisations such as public and private sector organisations consider employee satisfaction and their motivation as important factors. It has been observed that the satisfaction of employees has affected the performance of employees in private and public sector companies. The attitude of employees is related to behavioural patterns of employees within the organisation. However, change in behavioural pattern of employees can negatively influence the satisfaction level of employees within the organisational context. Problems with employee satisfaction are visible in both the private and public sector organisations although satisfaction and motivation related issues are more evitable in the private sector. On the other hand, the performance of employees is largely dependent on the satisfaction of employees or the presence of motivational factors within the organisational context as per the findings of this study. Remuneration acts as a major motivation factor for the employees while private sector employees are more vulnerable towards this motivation factor. Thus, this gives rise to negative consequences in the form of reduced performance from the employees. With the decrease in employee productivity, the productivity of the entire organisational performance is decreased.

6.2 Linking with objectives

  • Objective 1: Significance of employee Satisfaction and motivational factors in the private and public organisation

Employees are the asset of the organisation to develop their business; employees can increase the growth of the organisations through enhancing the quality of their productivity. At present organisations are more concerned about the process of retaining employees in the workplace.  Therefore the employee satisfaction and motivational factors should be there in the organisation then only the organisation can achieve their expected growth in their respective industry. Motivation plays an important role in the employees’ productivity. Through getting immense motivation from the hierarchy of the organisations, employees can develop their personality to perform better in their workplace. Positive working environment can make employees satisfied in both public and private organisations. In order to process the research primary and secondary data has been collected. The primary data collection method has been accomplished by conducting a survey with 51 respondents. As per the results of the survey the employee's satisfaction is correlated with employee’s performance matrix. Motivational factors are important for the employees of the organisation. The correlation score is 1. For employees who are struggling to manage their performance, the struggle is related to the performance matrix of the organisation. As per the further report employees are affected by employee satisfaction along with motivational factors both are related to the performance level of the employees. 

  • Objective 2: Challenges faced by organisation to maintain employee satisfaction and motivation

Organizations have to face various challenges to maintain employees’ satisfaction and motivation. Communicational gap along with problems in managing performance and let the employees leave the organisation, wrong in hiring decisions. Communication gap is one of the main challenges that organisations have to face in maintaining employee satisfaction.  If the organisation cannot mitigate the communication gap with the employee then the employee can leave the organisation. Sometimes the management of the organisation has made wrong decisions for hiring the employees without any knowledge of their previous experiences. It can be a challenge for the organisation to retain those employees. Some of the organisations cannot build a professional relationship with the customers and letting them go can create a severe effect on the organisational growth. According to the survey report, employees’ satisfaction is related to organisational growth. If the employees are satisfied then the organisation can grow their business. Most of the people are strongly agreed about employees who struggle to manage their performance, this struggle can affect the organisational performance. Employees are one of the most important factors of organisations to enhance the quality of their productivity and they can increase the growth of the organisation through mitigating the target of their key performance indicators.

  • Strategies to mitigate the issues of  employee satisfaction and motivation

Organizations have to focus on increasing the employees satisfaction rate and motivational factors. Employees are one of the important assets of the organisations therefore in order to develop the business they will have to take care of the well being of the employees. Management will have to communicate with their employees to know their issues in doing their job in the workplace. Employees can share their views and ideas for developing the business of the organisation. The organisation needs to start a reward programme to acknowledge the employees who are meeting all the key performance indicators; it can help to motivate the employees to perform better in the workplace. Management should embrace diversity among the employees to make a positive working environment. Management should respect the employees and should promote equality in the organisation to build trust in the employees. The employees are satisfied and motivated then only organisations can be developed as per their expectation. Organizations need to make decisions about hiring employees after getting knowledge about the background and previous experience. Organisations have to maintain their ethics to retain the employees. As per the report organisational development is related to the employees' satisfaction and motivation therefore organisations need to focus on their employees more for achieving their expected development.

6.3 Recommendations

The following recommendations can be considered to mitigate different issues faced by private and public organisations related to the satisfaction and motivation of employees.

Create a climate in which employees can easily share information: Easy flow of information is important within an organisation in order to increase the satisfaction and motivation of employees. As mentioned by Darma and Supriyanto (2017), if employees get the required information at the right time and in the right place, the decision-making becomes much easier. Thus, the employees are motivated to perform well in the organisational context while their level of satisfaction is also improved.

Focus on improving the reward system: The focus on improving the reward system is also important as the major focus of employees is to be rewarded for the service they provide to the organisation. As per the opinion of Gladisa and Susanty (2018), a performance-based reward system increases the focus of employees to achieve their team goals. Thus, the motivation related issues of employees can be avoided in an effective manner.

Deliver training sessions: Training is important for the employees so that they can understand their job roles. Thus, the problems faced by employees in the organisation can be avoided as they become clear about their job roles in the organisational context. From the viewpoint of Kawian et al. (2018), proper training sessions can also be helpful to increase employee communication and thus, their performance gaps can be minimised. The issues of miscommunication can be avoided with the help of effective training sessions in the organisational context.

Look after the work environment: The work environment is a major influencing factor towards the satisfaction of employees. Regular conflicts in the workplace can demotivate employees besides reducing their performance standard within the organisation. Thus, management of any type of company needs to focus on reducing the workplace environment to improve the performance of its employees which can, in turn, improve the productivity of the entire organisation.

6.4 Limitations

In order to process the research, there are some limitations that have been observed during the research. The research has been accomplished through primary and secondary data collection methods. There is a lack of information in some areas of the research because of the low availability of informative data. Time management is one of the important limitations of this research. In order to process the survey the time is limited, if there is more time the research could be more accurate and efficient. The budget is limited for doing this research because it is non-funding research. Some of the journals could not be accessed due to the requirements of the cost. The respondents of the primary survey are limited to 51 because of managing the time. If there is more time along with budget then the research could be accomplished with more accuracy. If the journals are properly available, the research interpretation could be more authentic and efficient.

6.5 Future scope

This research has been accomplished through analysing scientific information and conducting a primary survey. However, in order to process the research, there are some limitations that have occurred. Future researchers should take initiatives to mitigate the limitations for accomplishing the research successfully. The researcher should start the research early then only they can accomplish their research within time. If maximum data will be collected through the secondary sources then the researcher can save the time which can be provided to accomplish the research. The research should take ethical consent from the respondents before starting the survey. This research can help the future researcher to get the idea about the employee's criteria in the organisation therefore they can start their future research by collecting information from the previous research. Research has to focus on reducing the cost during the research then only there will be more budget they can easily access the important journals to accomplish their research.

6.6 Conclusion

The research has been accomplished to identify the significance of the employee's satisfaction and motivation among the employees of the private and public sectors. The research has been done with a primary survey of 51 respondents and a secondary data collection method. As per the survey report employees, satisfaction and motivation are one of the most important stages to develop organisational growth.  Employees can increase the profitability of the organisations by enhancing their performance. Organizations have to make their employees satisfied through applying effective initiatives. By following the ethics organisation can motivate their employees to perform better in the workplace.

 

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Appendices

Appendix 1: Ethics approval form

 

 

Business SchoolResearch Ethics Application Form

 

Project Title

Comparative analysis of job satisfaction and motivational factors of employees in public versus private organisations

Module

 

Module Code

 

Academic Year

Click here to enter a date.

Student

 

Supervisor

 

 

This section focuses on gaining an overall understanding of what is being examined within the research project. There should be sufficiently detailed so that a layperson can understand what is being assessed and how.

 

A1- Please provide a brief background and rationale to the research:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(This should be no more than 300 words and written for non-subject experts)

A2 - Please concisely state the research aim(s) and objective(s):

(This should be no more than 150 words and written for non-subject experts)

 

A3 -Please provide an overview of the methodological approach and materials used in this project:

(This should be written for non-subject experts)

 

A4 - Will the project entail ONLY secondary data collection using publically available sources?

No

(If you have answered “Yes” to A4 you do not need to complete sections B-D, please go direct to section E)

 

Please consider the following:

Does data collection require:

a)      Either researchers or participants to enter private locations (to which neither individual has full access rights)

b)     Access to the home(s) of either researchers or participants

c)      Private locations with no neutral third party present

d)     Entry to public locations after the hours of 6.00pm?

No

Are there any issues of confidentiality NOT addressed by the following?

a)      Aggregation of numerical data

b)     Anonymisation of specific individuals or organisations (e.g. through use of pseudonyms)

c)      Paraphrasing of potentially identifiable quotes

 

No

Are there any issues of data handling which are not dealt with by the following established procedures?

a)      Compliance with the Data Protection Act

b)     BCU University storage policy

 

No

 

 

This section focuses on gaining an understanding of how you will identify and recruit participants and whether what you are wishing to conduct is ethically sound. Please explain who you will recruit, why, how will you ensure their safety i.e. anonymity and any further ethical risks associated.

 

C1 - How will potential participants be identified, approached and recruited?

The permission will be taken from organisation and participants will be selected randomly.

 

C2- How will participants give informed consent freely?

(Please provide the consent form and participant information sheet with this ethics application)

Through online questionnaire

 

C3 - Will participants be informed of their right to withdraw their participation and/or data at any time during and after the study? Provide details of how you will achieve this:

No

 

This section requires you to detail: a) How you plan to collect your data and, b) How will securely store it. You are required to inform the committee how you aim to minimise environmental risks when collecting data, in addition to discussing the steps that you will take to protect the data that will be collected.

 

D1–Please provide details regarding the proposed site(s) for data collection

(e.g.location(s) and timing of data collection, with reference to potential risks to participants and researchers posed by this)

The data will be collected through online basis

 

D2 - How will you ensure confidentiality (or anonymisation, if possible) in collecting, interpreting and storing data?

The research will follow the data collection and privacy act to protect the rights and confidentiality of the information collected from the participants

 

D3- Where will data be stored and how will access be managed and controlled?

The data will be stored through survey monkey app.

 


 

Appendices checklist (Not Necessary for Secondary Data Analysis)

Participant information sheet

Yes

Participant consent form

Yes

Research materials (e.g. Copies of questionnaires, interviews, vignettes and other research tools)

Yes

 

Student declaration

In signing this research ethics application form I confirm the following:

  • That the form is accurate and completed to the best of my knowledge.
  • If the research is approved then I will adhere to the terms of the full application and if there are to be any changes to the project I will seek an amendment from the committee.
  • I understand that research records/data may be subject to inspection for audit and compliance purposes.
  • I understand this application and any additional documentation will be retained for 5 years post the end of the project.
  • I understand that my research must not involve: participation of those under 18 years of age; participation of those with learning disability; participation of those with a mental health condition; participation of those with physical or sensory impairments; participation of those with sensitive/significant life experiences (e.g. victims of abuse / ex-offenders); data collection surrounding highly sensitive topics (e.g. abuse, terrorism, religion, interpersonal violence, terminal illness); data collection from those in prison; constraint of participant rights (e.g. informed consent via deception, or perceptions of the right to withdraw from the study); any physical or intrusive intervention with the participant (including consumption of food or drinks); withholding any aspects of routine health treatment or care; a reasonable risk of disclosure of information requiring communication to another organisation (e.g. abuse, criminal offences/illegal activity, unknown illness or disease); long distance travel to collect data; NHS service users.

 

Signed by

Click here to enter text.

Date

Click here to enter a date.

 

Supervisor declaration

In signing this research ethics application form I confirm the following:

  • I am satisfied that the scientific content of the research is satisfactory for an educational qualification at this level.
  • I take responsibility for working with the student named above to ensure that this study is conducted in accordance with the relevant disciplinary ethical guidelines.
  • I willensure that the student seeks an amendment from the BLSS Research Ethics Committee before implementing substantial amendments to the protocol or to the terms of the full application of which the Committee has given a favourable opinion.

 

Signed by

 

Date

Click here to enter a date.

 

ADMINISTRATION SECTION

Application Reference:Click here to enter text.

Date of Submission:Click here to enter text.

Allocated Category:Click here to enter text.

Allocated Reviewers:Click here to enter text.

 


 

Appendix 2: Gantt chart

Activities

Week 1

Week 2 to 3

Week 3 to 4

Week 5 to 7

Week 8 to 9

Week 10

Selection of the topic

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frame out the research structure

 

 

 

 

 

 

Literature review

 

 

 

 

 

 

Primary and secondary data collection

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formation of research plan

 

 

 

 

 

 

Identifying the research technique

 

 

 

 

 

 

Analysis of Data

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conclusion and Recommendation

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formation of draft

 

 

 

 

 

 

Submission of the research study

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix 3: Questionnaire

Q1. Please specify your age.

  • 18-25
  • 26-30
  • 31-40
  • More than 40

Q2. Please specify your gender

  • Male
  • Female
  • Others

Q3. Do you agree that job satisfaction is important for employees in an organization? (IV)

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

Q4. How far do you agree that employee motivation is important for any kind of organization? (IV)

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

Q5. Do you agree that employee performance is affected by their job satisfaction in the organization?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

Q6. How far do you agree that employee working is affected by employee motivation factors in the organization?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

Q7. Do you agree that you struggle while managing your performance in the organization that has affected your performance?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

 

 

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