In this context, there has been a particular illustration of understanding and differentiating the aspects of organisational culture utilising several theories and models. The utlistion of Hofstede and Trompennars Model has been proved to be accommodating in evaluating and criticising various aspects of organisational culture in the context of selected countries. As a matter of fact, by differentiating and providing a significant explanation of organisational culture, the purpose of the study will be illustrated in a brief manner. However, anlaysing of the significant impact of tendencies on the outcomes of specific cross border business has been proved to be accommodating to reveal the primal aspect of the study.
Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory is a systematic framework that has been utlised to identify certain cultural differences across the countries and to discern the ways that business is done across diverse cultures. As a matter of fact, the ultimate purpose of utlising this effective framework is to present distinguish between two different national cultures, the general dimension of the culture along with evaluating the impact on a business setting
Power Distance Index: High power distance index point towards whether a particular culture acknowledges inequality and power differences, demonstrate elevated respect for authority and rank and supports bureaucracy (Taras, 2017). On the other hand, a low power distance index portrays that a culture supports organisational cultures which are considered to be characteristic decentralized and smooth in the process of decision-making responsibility.
Individualism vs. Collectivism: The perception of individualism VS collectivism dimension regard as the particular degree to which societies are incorporated into various groups and their alleged requirements and reliance on the groups (Taras, 2017).
Uncertainty Avoidance Index: In terms of uncertainty avoidance index, it is indeed observable that an elevated range of uncertainty avoidance depicts a low amount of tolerance for doubt, involvement of risks, and uncertainty (Ugrin, Pearson, and Nickle, 2018). In the case of the low range of uncertainty avoidance, the index illustrates extreme tolerance for uncertainty, involvement of risk factors, and haziness.
Masculinity vs. Femininity: In organisational context, the involvement of masculinity occupies characteristics such as assertive, determined on material achievements, and separate gender functions (Litvin, S.W., 2019).
Long-Term Orientation vs. Short-Term Orientation: The major intention of long-term orientation is to provide a significant focus on the upcoming future along with the participation of delaying short-term accomplishment in order to attain long-term success (Ugrin, Pearson, and Nickle, 2018). On the other hand, the purpose of the short-term orientation determines to focus on the current condition and to obtain short-term success. As a matter of fact, it focuses on rapid results rather than focusing on long-term success.
Indulgence vs. Restraint: The indulgence VS restraint dimension considers the extent and tendency for a society in order to complete its desires. As a matter of fact, this dimension basically discovers the control of society over their requirements and inclinations (Litvin, S.W., 2019).
In order to operate in various foreign countries, organisations have to encounter several problematic situations regarding a variety of cultures. According to Trompennar's cultural dimension model, it distinguishes seven cultural dimensions in order to understand the cultural insights of different countries.
1. Universalism versus Particularism: In terms of universal culture, it can be applied anywhere and as a matter of fact; there is always a definition that can be utilised to determine the distinction between wrong and right. Standards and values are indeed imperative and can only be deceased after discussion (Carolina, ?., 2019). As a matter of fact, it is usually acknowledged that in comparable circumstances people from dissimilar origins obtain equal earnings.
2. Individualism versus Communitarianism: It is indeed true that individualism sees the human being as individuals, but in the case of communitarianism, it characterises humanity as a part of a particular group. According to the theory of Fons Trompennars, the eccentric culture is simultaneous to the perceptions of the western world. On the other hand, the communication culture is correlated to non-western countries (Glover, J. and Trompenaars, 2018).
3. Neutral versus Emotional: Regarding the fact of controlling neutral emotions, whereas in an emotional culture sentiments are articulated openly and impulsively (Carolina, ?., 2019). Famous trompenaars cultural dimensions countries of neutral cultures are Japan and Great Britain, in these countries, they glare upon being angry in public, exhibiting any other emotional eruptions, or laughing loudly.
4. Specific versus Diffuse: According to the perception of a particular culture, individuals share a great amount of public space and that that they share without difficulty with individuals. In fact, they also share the lowest amount of private space which is indeed necessary to correlate with good friends (Glover, J. and Trompenaars, 2018).
5. Achievement versus Ascription: According to certain verifications, this uneasy accomplished status (achievement) versus attributed (ascription) status. In the case of an achievement-oriented culture, an individual's merit is indomitable on the origin of their presentations and how well they execute the responsibilities (Zukhi, Hussain, and Husni, 2020). According to an organisational culture in which status is endorsed, status is supported by who the person in question is.
6. Sequential versus Synchronous Time: The general criteria of determining time are different and unique in the case of organisational culture. As a matter of fact, synchronous time is more nonfigurative and focuses on the working capacity to work on several assignments at a time (Zukhi, Hussain, and Husni, 2020). It does not concern itself with the time zone and is also aware of the fact of physical nature of human beings.
7. Internal Direction versus Outer Direction: In the case of internal-directed versus outer-directed cultures the focal point is to understand how people occur their environment
1.2 Demonstration of the Criticism of the Hofstede and Trompenaars Models
The utilisation of the Hofstede model has been observed in the case of doing a limited survey in order to explain the values of the particular group or company. Therefore, several scholars illustrate concrete perceptions on the subject of the reliability and validity of the Hofstede model. According to some researchers' point of view, it has been considered that this model is too backdated to have any modern value, particularly in an ever-changing international organisational atmosphere (Sochor, 2020). However, Hofstede’s work facilitated numerous business individuals to increase their business effectively in a foreign country because of his undemanding and qualified model during the 1980s where there were many businesses towards the inside international market. As a matter of fact, this model delivers a strong core which is considered to be accommodating in the case of cultural research or study (Tocar, 2019). Often, it is also considered by various researchers that this type of model is extremely complex and the model proves to be unable to draw certain variations between two particular countries as per their viewpoint (Jumayev, 2021).
Most of the case, it has been observed that Hofstede model is extremely accommodating in illustrating cultural differentiation of two diverse countries. As per the suggestion of various instructors, time to time amendments requires to be developed ad modified to measure the criteria of global organisational culture (Sochor, 2020).
In terms of Trompenaars Models, there are different aspects of the classifications of the cultures of different notions. The utilisation of Trompenaars Models has a huge impact in the context of organisational culture. Trompenaars’s system emerges focus-oriented; it articulates the core insight of people within a brief manner, it speaks about the logical organization and framework of their behavior. It is also appropriate to measure certain tactics of organisational culture (Tocar, 2019).
2.1 Discussion of the Organisational Background
Amazon.com, Inc. is a US technological multinational corporation that concentrates on email, cloud, electronic broadcasting and artificial intelligence. It is a Big Five company alongside Google, Apple, Microsoft and Facebook in the American information technology sector. The business is also known as "one of the most important financial and technological powers in the country" and as the most valued brand in the world. On 5 July 1994 Jeff Bezos established Amazon in his garage in Bellevue, Washington. It began as an online book store; however, has been extended to include gadgets, software, video games and jewellery (Chinaet al., 2018). In 2015, Amazon exceeded Walmart via market capitalization as the most profitable bookseller in the United States. In 2017 Amazon bought the "Whole Foods Market" for US$13.4 billion, which significantly improved its physical retail presence. In 2018 Amazon Prime delivered over 100 million members globally for two-day delivery.
2.2 Discussion of the Dimensions of National Culture
2.2.1 Brief Explanation of Each Dimensions of Culture Represented in the Model
220.127.116.11 Differentiation of Cultural Tendencies of the Two Countries
In the case of China, there is a certain belief that inequalities amongst people are acceptable and also it has been observing that there is no single amount of defense against power abuse by the superiors (Cai et al., 2017). In the case of the USA, it is considered that each and every individual particular point of view.
China is considered to possess a high amount of collectivist culture and people are more interested in grouping rather than featuring individual perception. The low range of power distance combinations illustrates the involvement of individualist culture (Bradford et al., 2018).
The exceeding level of masculinity in the organisational culture of china depicts or indicates that the society will be driven by the opposition, success, and accomplishment which is indeed started from the school and continues to the cultural norm of life. Similarly, in terms of the USA, it has been observed that the increasing rate of involvement of masculine people will be accommodating to progress the achievement (DiMaggio, 2019).
China shares a low amount of uncertainty avoidance. On the other hand, the USA has been scored a low range of uncertainty avoidance.
China scores 87 in this dimension and that illustrates that it is a very realistic culture. In societies with a realistic point of reference, people consider that truth depends on the fact of the situation, circumstance, and instance. The United States achieves normative on the fifth dimension with a little score of 26 (DiMaggio, 2019).
China is a reserved society which is indeed portrayed in its low score of 24 in this dimension (Cai et al., 2017). As a matter of fact, the score of the USA depicts an indulgent society on the sixth dimension. This is also combined with a normative score and also reflected by the subsequent conflicting performance.
18.104.22.168 Illustration of Typical Workplace Values, Attitudes and Communication Styles in the Two Countries in the Venture
Workplace Values in Amazon Inc.
It is simple to get started from an internal viewpoint in the organisational framework of Amazon Inc., i.e., first thinking about the product or other offer on the US and China market, then moving down the line to reach customers. The fundamental premise for Amazon is start with the consumer and then work in both nations backwards. The goal is to build deep and enduring trust among consumers in the self-professed "obsession," since all Amazon executives begin to remember the client (Gupta and Gupta, 2019). For all Amazon staff in nations such as USA and China, innovation is essential. The business searches for individuals who are ready to attempt new things and surprising others with their ideas. Moreover, this invention must be developed and carried out in a manner that is easy to grasp and implement. The daily order at Amazon is daring approaches and enormous objectives.
Behaviour, Attitudes and Conduct
Results of an exclusive statistical study carried out in the United States in 2018 are shown in the statistics on AMAXON sentiments. About 55% of participants answered the question, "What of the following assertions about Amazon do you agree with?" with 'Amazon is trailblazing in modern times.'Over recent years, our China online retail company has evolved to focus cross-border sales more and more, and in return, Chinese consumers have shown extremely significant responses to them (Xu, Drennan and Mathews, 2019). Their demand for products from across the globe is growing fast, and Amazon is ideally placed to serve them because of our worldwide footprint," the firm said. Consumers in China may still purchase goods from the U.S., Germany, Japan, and the UK via Amazon's worldwide website because, according to a previous Reuters storey, the emphasis was on cross-border purchases into the second biggest economy in the world. It is claimed that Amazon's clouds business will remain in China.
Communication Styles in Amazon Inc.
The use of integrated marketing communications is extremely significant for technology firms like Amazon. Amazon gives its consumers both in the USA and China a customised homepage with newly acquired goods, e-mail consumers with discounts or items comparable to those that they already purchased or browsed, and writers may publish their wish lists or e-books in their websites. The general goal of Amazon is also an important element of public relations.As its primary marketing form, Amazon utilises media (Khan and Law, 2018). They concentrate on internet marketing platforms. "We mainly use a range of target online marketing channels, including our partner programme, sponsored search, portal advertising, e-mail marketing campaigns and other efforts to reach our website consumers."
2.2.2 Analysis of the Significant Impact of Cultural Tendencies on the Outcomes of Specific Cross Border Business
22.214.171.124 Assessment and Explanation of the Way of National Culture Influencing the Actions and Behaviours of the Organisation and the Outcome of the Venture
Organizational cultures vary from national cultures, although the development of organisational culture has certain parallels with national culture. In the formation of organisational culture, national culture plays a major influence. Due to the resource-based view (RBV) hypothesis, a strong corporate culture has more impact on national culture, giving companies a superior edge (Nazarian, Atkinson and Foroudi, 2017). National culture of the USA influences the culture of Amazon Inc. To what degree a national culture is more likely to restrict a company's organisational culture. Due to differences in cultural typology, national culture has a certain area in the organisational culture. The influence of the national culture on strategic choices is higher. The culture of organisations must be adapted to the national policy, which may therefore be considered to affect the culture of the organisation by its character.
Different scholars have described the indefinite character of the organisational culture as a notion differently. The organisational culture of Amazon Inc. is deeply rooted in companies that have been founded by employer values, ideas and assumptions. Organisational culture is the pattern of shared fundamental assumptions acquired by a group to deal with external adaption and internal integration difficulties. It enables members to think and feel about issues in organisations as a method to behave inside organisations (Vitollaet al., 2019). Organisational culture has been an implicit collection of generally held values, beliefs and assumptions of organisations. Although national culture reflects strongly on values, corporate culture primarily refers to sharing convictions about corporate procedures and systems.
On the other hand, truthfully, the issue of Amazon Inc. is partly a result of political and economic correctness and some cultural ignorance in China. Given the criticisms of labour abuses at their Asian contractual operations that firms like Nike have faced, it is doubtful that any big US firm can develop and maintain any structure that is so unorganised, unregulated, and entirely free (Sreen, Purbey and Sadarangani, 2018). Amazon is reacting late, but usually US-centred. In order to support and register individual businesses who want to set up their shipping services for Amazon's parcels, the firm is launching the new Delivery Service Partners programme. Their assumption is as good as mine that it's best for the small people as any other aspect of the gig economy.
2.3 Discussion regarding the Corporate Culture and the Organisational Culture Inventory (OCI)
2.3.1 Comparison of the Actual Culture and the Ideal Culture
To start with, reflect again on the difference among people's ideals and behaviour, which goes against them. This divide among ideal culture and actual culture occurs more broadly. Ideal culture comprises the ideals and standards claimed by a culture. It includes an idealistic, rigorous set of values that mandates flawless conduct. They are either correct or incorrect with ideal culture as a criterion. There are no grey areas, no exclusions, black and white standards (Buchtelet al., 2018). On the other hand, real culture comprises the principles and standards that a society really follows. It comprises a system of customizable values, most of which are utilised as a set of desired conduct recommendations. Right and wrong are divided, yet for almost everything there are exceptions.
2.3.2 Implementation of Organisational Culture Inventory (OCI) and its Impact to Measure the Failure or Success of a Venture
An "Organizational Culture Inventory" (OCI) is a commonly-used assessment to measure corporate culture. It results in a clear assessment of the corporate culture of an organisation. Generally, during the organisational business operation of Amazon Inc. in the market of China, the organisation has significantly measured the actual culture of China before conducting and establishing their organisational business in the market.The "China Organizing Culture Inventory" offers insights into the behaviour of employees and managers who drive and influence the culture of today (Khanet al., 2020). The common standards of conduct will be apparent and Amazon Inc.'s conduct will match requirements. In "Human Synergistics Circumplex" all workers demonstrated. That guarantees that the comparative standards in the corporation remain constructional, receptive, combative and protective.
Amazon has, on the other hand, defined the ideal culture in the utilisation and implementation of the OCI framework; a culture best suited to the achievement of the organization's goals. It shows you how an organisation likes the optimum culture. Both staff and management will show what they see as their company's most successful behaviour. This leads to a notion of China's ideal culture focused on shared worker beliefs and convictions. Then the present culture may be contrasted with the ideal culture (Moffatt, 2018). The places in which they overlap should be appreciated and potential caps are chances to improve. In this aspect, it becomes evident that the actual culture of China is little different than the ideal culture of the country that was anticipated by Amazon Inc. before their business operation.
Thus, by analysing the entire study, it is concluded that during the organisational business operation of Amazon Inc. in both the USA and Chinese market, it has got a vast differentiation of the culture. By utilising different cultural models and framework, Amazon Inc. has been able to proficiently develop their organisational business operation process. However, due to the ignorance of some effective cultural consideration in the Chinese market, Amazon Inc. has got significant loss and negative impact during their business operation. In this aspect, the leadership and the management team of the organisation have decided to implement and utilise some effective approaches and frameworks to identify the difference or gap between the actual culture of China and the ideal culture of China.
Bradford, E.E., Jentzsch, I., Gomez, J.C., Chen, Y., Zhang, D. and Su, Y., 2018. Cross-cultural differences in adult theory of mind abilities: a comparison of native-English speakers and native-Chinese speakers on the self/other differentiation task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71(12), pp.2665-2676.
Buchtel, E.E., Ng, L.C., Norenzayan, A., Heine, S.J., Biesanz, J.C., Chen, S.X., Bond, M.H., Peng, Q. and Su, Y., 2018. A sense of obligation: Cultural differences in the experience of obligation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 44(11), pp.1545-1566.
Cai, D., Kunaviktikul, W., Klunklin, A., Sripusanapan, A. and Avant, P.K., 2017. Developing a cultural competence inventory for nurses in China. International nursing review, 64(2), pp.205-214.
Carolina, ?., 2019. DIMENSIONS OF NATIONAL CULTURE–CROSS-CULTURAL THEORIES. Studies in Business & Economics, 14(3).
China, S., Burrows, S.M., Wang, B., Harder, T.H., Weis, J., Tanarhte, M., Rizzo, L.V., Brito, J., Cirino, G.G., Ma, P.L. and Cliff, J., 2018. Fungal spores as a source of sodium salt particles in the Amazon basin. Nature communications, 9(1), pp.1-9.
DiMaggio, P., 2019. Social structure, institutions, and cultural goods: The case of the United States. In Social theory for a changing society (pp. 133-166). Routledge.
Glover, J. and Trompenaars, F., Culture, Change, and Leadership: Meeting the Challenges of Global Diversity.
Gupta, M. and Gupta, S., 2019. Influence of national cultures on operations management and supply chain management practices—a research agenda. Production and Operations Management, 28(11), pp.2681-2698.
Jumayev, U., 2021. INTERCULTURAL DIFFERENCE PARAMETERS: HOFSTEDE AND TROMPENAARS THEORIES. ????? ??????? ?????????? (buxdu. uz), 3(3).
Khan, M.A. and Law, L.S., 2018. The role of national cultures in shaping the corporate management cultures: A three-country theoretical analysis. In Organizational Culture. IntechOpen.
Khan, W.A., Hassan, R.A., Arshad, M.Z., Arshad, M.A., Kashif, U., Aslam, F. and Wafa, S.A., 2020. The effect of entrepreneurial orientation and organisational culture on firm performance: The mediating role of innovation. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 13(3), pp.652-677.
Litvin, S.W., 2019. Hofstede, cultural differences, and TripAdvisor hotel reviews. International Journal of Tourism Research, 21(5), pp.712-717.
Moffatt, J.J., 2018. Organisational culture and performance in project based organisations operating in the Australian resources and energy sector (Doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of Technology).
Nazarian, A., Atkinson, P. and Foroudi, P., 2017. Influence of national culture and balanced organizational culture on the hotel industry’s performance. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 63, pp.22-32.
Sochor, J., 2020. Comparison of Selected Attributes in Cultural Dimensions as Defined by Hofstede and the GLOBE Project. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE IN THE CHANGING BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT, p.270.
Sreen, N., Purbey, S. and Sadarangani, P., 2018. Impact of culture, behavior and gender on green purchase intention. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 41, pp.177-189.
Taras, V., 2017. Cultural dimensions, Hofstede. The International Encyclopedia of Intercultural Communication, pp.1-5.
Tocar, S.D., 2019. Comparative analysis of some cultural dimensions systems: A qualitative value-based approach. Cross-Cultural Management Journal, 21(1), pp.21-34.
Ugrin, J.C., Pearson, J.M. and Nickle, S.M., 2018. An examination of the relationship between culture and cyberloafing using the hofstede model. Journal of Internet Commerce, 17(1), pp.46-63.
Vitolla, F., Raimo, N., Rubino, M. and Garzoni, A., 2019. The impact of national culture on integrated reporting quality. A stakeholder theory approach. Business Strategy and the Environment, 28(8), pp.1558-1571.
Xu, K., Drennan, J. and Mathews, S., 2019. Immigrant entrepreneurs and their cross-cultural capabilities: A study of Chinese immigrant entrepreneurs in Australia. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 17(4), pp.520-557.
Zukhi, M.M., Hussain, A. and Husni, H., 2020. Culturicon design model for social mobile applicatio