Accounting Questions Assignment Sample

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A. Budgeting

Particulars

2014

2015 (Budgeted)

Variance

Trading revenue

1746.6

1921.26

174.66

cost of sale

1235.2

1334.016

98.816

Gross margin

511.4

552.312

40.912

Other income

55.9

60.372

4.472

Warehouse and distribution costs

176.5

190.62

14.12

Selling, administation and other operating costs

240.8

260.064

19.264

Share of net profit of joint venture entities

9.4

10.152

0.752

Other expenses

17.5

18.9

1.4

profit before finance and income tax

141.9

153.252

11.352

Interest income

2.5

2.7

0.2

Finance cost

21.1

22.155

1.055

Profit before income tax

123.3

129.465

6.165

Income tax expense

24.2

27.104

2.904

Net profit

99.1

110.992

11.892

Net profit attributable to non controlling interests

11

12.32

1.32

Net profit attributable to shareholders of CSR limited

88.1

98.672

10.572

 

 

 

 

Earning per share (cents)

 

 

 

Basic earning per share based on net profit attributaable to shareholsers of CSR Limited

17.5

19.6

2.1

Diluted earnings per share based on net profit attributable to shareholders of CSR Limited

17.5

19.6

2.1

Interpretations

The above mentioned consolidated income statement prepared for the 2015 has based on the pre-determined percentages in  terms of specific percentages (Adler & Volta, 2016). The budgeted income statements is the outcome generated by using specific percentages based on the previous figures of 2014. The revenue in the above mentioned income statements is increasing with a 10% which shows the abilityu of an enterprise as their revenue has increases from 1746.6 to 1921.26 with a increment of 174.66. The exact ratio of expenditure excluding the finance costs are decided as 10% increases which is not good sign for an entity. The increasing amount of expenses will deteriorate the performance of the business as an entity tries to minimize their liability in the form of different kinds of expenses. The increment oin the expenses reflects deficiency of an entity. The finance costs had deceased rom the total expenses whosew defined ratio is 10% as expenses will result in lower efficiency of the business. Apart from increasing all kinds of the expenses the gross profit of an enterprise are aloi increases. The net profit of an entity has increases from the previous figures. It can be said that the budgeted figures are more efficiuent than the previous figures as the increase in the cost will lead to increase in the business efficiency (Gunz & Thorne, 2016). This higher efficiency is due to the increasing sales and the revenue from previous figures as all other figures are systematically flows in a same direction. The earning per share which ensure an entity's efficiency over a particular period results in good increment. The higher EPS will ensure the shareholders as they get higher returns for their valuable money invested in the business. The budgeted figures are far more better than the previous figures as the current efficiency of the business are increasing over a period of time.

B. Accounting for decision making

1. Contribution margin per unit

 

 

 

Particulars

Sport

Drama

Comedy

Sale price

100

70

200

variable cost

60

50

100

Contribution

40

20

100

 

 

 

 

2. Average contribution margin per unit

 

 

 

Particulars

Sport

Drama

Comedy

Sale price

100

70

200

variable cost

60

50

100

Contribution per unit

40

20

100

*sales mix %

40.00%

50.00%

10.00%

Average contribution

16

10

10

Sum of weighted

36

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Sales mix of each category

 

 

 

Particulars

Sport

Drama

Comedy

Total fixed cost

90000

90000

90000

Break even unit Sales volume

40000

25000

25000

 

 

 

 

4. Total units of  Sales Mix

 

 

 

Particulars

Total

 

 

Total fixed cost

90000

 

 

Break even units of sales Mix

2500

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.Number of units of product

 

 

 

Particulars

Sport

Drama

Comedy

Sales Mix

40.00%

50.00%

10.00%

*Total Break event units

2500

2500

2500

Product units at BEP

1000

1250

250

 

 

 

 

6. Desired income after tax

 

 

 

Particulars

Sport

Drama

Comedy

Total fixed cost

90000

90000

90000

Targeted income(before tax)

45000

45000

45000

Contribution margin per unit

40

20

100

Sales in units(Fixed cost+targeted income/contribution margin per unit)

91125

92250

90450

 

Interpretations

Break event point is regarded as one of the important methods involved in every business entity whose major emphasises on ascertaining the efficiency of the business. It is that method which help a entity in order to identify that specific point in which an enterprise will nor profit or loss in order to form further business planning (Zeff, 2016). The contribution margin of the above categories such as sport, drama and conedy out of which comedy has higher contribution margin rate. The break even units are higher in the drama category than all other products. The above trageted income of 27000 is income after tax which needs to be further transferred into income before tax in order to find accurate figures of trageted income in the sales units (Kaplan & Atkinson, 2015). It has been clearly shown from the above figure that the sales in units are increases in the drama category than all other categories of the overall sales mix.

C. Consolidated statement of financial position

  1. According to International accounting standards 16 which deals in seeking accountibng records of property,plant and equipment which is generally referred to as fixed assets. This further extends to recognition, determination of their carrying amounts and all other depreciation charges (Gunz & Thorne, 2016). The depreciation followed in this financial statements is cost less residual value which is consistently followed throughoput the year. The criteria of this method suggest that useful life of the asset needs to be incorpoprate as one of the disclosures. The normal years of the assets taken into considerations of PPE that is property, plant and equipment is to be taken as 2 years till 40 years of useful life. The assumed useful life in this statements is 11 years in the financial position statement of CSR Ltd.
  2. The recoverable amount is calculated by deducting fair value of the fixed assets from their net worth that is the sael price of that asset.
  3. The overall figure of PPE additions that means purchasing of all these assets to take part in the designated group is around 4.1 The selling of assets in case of its obsoleteness and in order to buy new asset disposals of this year are 1.5 and at the zsame tile depreciation expenses opf all hese assets is around 62.5.
  4. The gross balance of plant, equipment and property are 1323.3 with accumulated depreciation 783.5 which is deducted from the gross balance which will results in the total carrying amount of 539.8 of the plant and property (Gunz, & Thorne, 2016). The total amount of the overall category of property, plant and equipment is around 3 which can be said that singular amount of equipment is 821.3-539.8 which is equal to 281.5.
  5. The variety of assets taken into considerations whichh alos imncortpoprated in the category of intangible assets includes system software, t5rade names, competition agreements, goodwill and other intangible assets. The total of intangible assets amount is 42.1+ 66.1(goodwill amount) after considering all other assets. The total amou8mnt of intangible asset is 108.2.
  6. The current and non-current borrowings are nil for the period of 2015 as it helps in increases the revenue of an enterprise.
  7. The total finance cost which is one of the component of the budgeted financial position statements which is derived from the previous figures of 2014. The total finance cost is around 7.0 from its previous year of 2014.

 D. Income statements of 2015

  1. The total revenue from the income statements of CSR Ltd is all around 2023.4 in the year of 2015 as this revenue has generated from the sale of goods and services of an entity. The revenue is regarded as essential aspect of theincome statements as this forms basis for calculating the net profit (Zeff, 2016). The operations of the company is related to different compoenets such as Hedge profit transferred in the form of equity and another which is transformed in the statements of financial position. The changes in the value is due to the changes takes places in the fair value and the sale price which will results in the positive changes in the cash flow hedges of joint ventures.

 

  1. The net profit of this entity is around 146.7 but the remaining profit after dealing with obligations of the shareholders will results into 125.5 is the total profit which ois attributable to the shareholder's of CSR Ltd (Collier, 2015). There are different attriabutes of profit determined by an entity owner by preparing profit and loss statements which includes gross profit, operating profit, profit before tax and net profit and comprehensive income. All these different varieties of the profit are determined according to the specoific business requirements. The gross profit is raw prtofit which is dewrived after dedeucting the colst of sales and operating oprofit hyas generated after considering only operating expenses from the cost of sales incurred by an entity which is regarded as the incomplete figure which forms obne of the basis of determinantion of the complte profit (Lafond, McAleer & Wentzel, 2016). The best suitable profit which will determine the actiual figure of the profitability level of an entity is the net profit as it considerted the taxation figure.
  2. The main motoive of preparing profit and loss statements is to obtain the actual figure of the net profit which is to be oincluded in the balance sheet in the acounting sense. The adjusted amount of profit is required to enhnace the growth of an entity and the operational performance.

E. Consolidated Cash flow statements of 2015

  1. The total cash flows generated by an entity from all the three categories such as operating activities, investing activities and the financing activities which will results in 62.1 for 2015. The observations of the cash flow it has been identified that operating activities is the only catyegory out of the total which will generated higher as well as positive figures of the cash flow is around 230.9 (Deegan, 2016). It can be said that the higher efficiency of the operating activities of the cash flow is strong enough to reflect good image of an enterprise.
  2. The primary cash inflows and cash outflows from all the activities includes sales and the revenue, investing in the business due to the purchase or sale of investments. The basic cash inflow is sales and receipt and cash outflow is purchasing and the payment.
  3. The amount of cash received from the sale of property, plant and equipement is around 93.5
  4. The total profit generated by an entity during a particular year of 2015 is around 125.5 and the cash available at the end of the balance sheet date is around is 68.4. The prepartion of profit and loss is essential for cash flow as the profit is the basic element oin whom all other figures are determined in the business entity (Gunz & Thorne, 2016). The differences in the profitability is due to the high l;evl of expenses which needs to be controlled as this can create or destroy the existing position of the business enterprise.

It can be summarised from the above project report that assessing the internal business capabilities will be beneficial for an entity as it helps in taking further business steps. The results obtained from the prepartion of the financial statements and the break even methods will helkp an entity in making good accounting decisions. The judgmental skills of the owner shouold be strong enough in order to deal with the complex business situations in order to keep pace with the external environment.

REFERENCES

Books and journals

Lafond, C. A., McAleer, A. C., & Wentzel, K. (2016). Enhancing the Link between Technology and Accounting in Introductory Courses: Evidence From Students. Journal of the Academy of Business Education.17.

Zeff, S. A. (2016). Forging accounting principles in five countries: A history and an analysis of trends. Routledge.

Gow, I. D., Larcker, D. F., & Reiss, P. C. (2016). Causal inference in accounting research. Journal of Accounting Research. 54(2). 477-523.

Gunz, S., & Thorne, L. (2016). Introduction to Thematic Symposium on Accounting Professionalism. Journal of Business Ethics, 1-3.

Adler, N., & Volta, N. (2016). Accounting for externalities and disposability: A directional economic environmental distance function. European Journal of Operational Research. 250(1). 314-327.

Kaplan, R. S., & Atkinson, A. A. (2015).Advanced management accounting. PHI Learning.

Deegan, C. (2016). So, who really is a “noted author” within the accounting literature? A reflection on Benson et al.(2015). Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal29(3), 483-490.

Collier, P. M. (2015). Accounting for managers: Interpreting accounting information for decision making. John Wiley & Sons.

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