In business, there are various crucial aspects which are essential to be taken into account so that proper functioning can be determined. Accounting practices are one of the important part of every business organisation such as Wesfarmers. It can help in analysing the financial statement of company during a year (Lunenburg and Ornstein, 2011). In this report, various tools and techniques are used to examine the performance of company. The other part of this report provides information about sustainability of the firm.
Wesfarmers Ltd is well known Australian conglomerate public limited company. It is situated in Perth and Western Australia. The company is generating total revenue of A$65.9 billion with total number of 220000 employees. Wesfarmers recorded a substantial enhance in net profit for the year 2017 as compare to that previous year 2016. Underlying net profit after tax is also at higher side with total of 22.1% to $2.873 million.
Earnings per share (EPS) is increase to 21.6% to a highest record of $2.55. Return on equity is also jumped to 9.6 per cent to 12.4%. The main focus of company is to provide superior return to shareholders for the long period of time. At this short term profits can be scarifies in order to support long term business growth (Flamholtz, 2012). It is important for the company's to determine their financial position in proper manner. By which, decision-making can be more easy for them to plan their future. The best way to identified various outcomes then, manager need to use financial statements of the company. Such as income statements, balance sheet and cash flow statements.
Income statement of Wesfarmers Ltd
Cost of Revenue
Gross Operating Profit
Research and development
Sales, general and administrative
Depreciation and amortization
Other Operating Expenses
Total Operating Expenses
Operating income before interest and taxes
Income before income taxes
Provision for income taxes
Net income from continuing operations
Net income available for common shareholders
Earnings per share
Cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments
Cash and cash equivalents
Total cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments
Other Current Assets
Total current assets
Not property, plant and equipment
Equity and other investments
Deferred Income Taxes
Other Long-Term Assets
Total non-current assets
Liabilities and stockholders' equity
Other current liabilities
Total current liabilities
Deferred taxes liabilities
Long Term Debt
Other long-term liabilities
Total non-current liabilities
Additional paid-in capital
Total stockholders' equity
Total liabilities and stockholders' equity
From the above two crucial statements of the company, its performances can be determine by using various ratios. Because, by analysing ratios in well organised manner perfect solution can be examine by the managers.
Comparison of performance in two year through using various ratios.
Liquidity ratio: It is said to be that ratio by which company can determine its total cash availability with them (Edmonds and et. al., 2013). It is categories into various parts. It can be gauge a company's capability to pay off its debts. Such as:
Current ratio: It is refers to measure a company's total ability to pay short-term obligations. It is financial ratio that investors should be used to decide whether they are able to meet out there cash requirements.
Current ratio: Current assets/ Current liabilities
2016: 9684 /10424=0.93
2017: 9667/10417= 0.93
Acid test ratio: The quick ratio is a liquidity ratio which is used to measures the capabilities of Wesfarmers Ltd to pay its current debts as they come due with only quick assets.
Acid test ratio: Current assets-(Prepaid expenses + Stock) / current liabilities
2016: 9684-6260 / 10424= 3424/10424= 0.33
2017: 9667-6530 / 10417=3137/10417= 0.3
According to the above analysis, it has been found that current ratio of the company is not much changes as pre the previous year. The ideal ratio of CA is 2:1. It means that current liabilities are higher than assets which make huge impact on the performance of the company. Such types of case are said to be underperformed companies. Whereas, acid test ratio of Wesfarmers is under liquidity. As they are not able to pay off their short term debts.
Profitability ratios: It refers as more effective ratios which is used to measure the profitability of the company. It is a way to determine company's performance during the year. It is more simple way that capacity to generate profit for the company can be identified. It consists of:
Gross profit ratio: It is known as that ratio that establishes the relationship of gross gains on total sales to net sales of a firm (What is the Gross Profit Margin, 2016).
Gross profit ratio: Gross profit / Net sales *100
2016: 19987 /65512*100= 30.5%
2017: 21656/68015*100= 31.8%
Net profit ratio: Such kind of ratios shows positive relationship among net profit after tax and net sale.
Net profit ratio: Net profit after tax (PAT) / Net sales *100
2016: 407/65512*100= 0.62%
From the above ratios, it has been found that profitability position of the company is very low in 2016. The Gross profit ratios is less because minimum use of cost of goods sold (COGS). Whereas, net profitability of the company is enhance by 4 time which is positive sign for the company.
ROCE: It is said to be return on capital employee. The purpose of this is to measure total return Wesfarmers is getting from its total investments.
ROCE: Operating Profit / Capital employed *100
2016: 19987/ 22949*100= 87.09%
2017: 21656/23941*100= 90.4%
Gearing ratio: It is said to be relationship between equity and other fixed interest loan.
Gearing ratio: long term debts / Capital employed *100
2016: 5671/22949*100= 24.7%
2017: 4066/23941*100= 16.9%
Acid test ratio
Gross profit ratio
Net profit ratio
The above table indicate comparison of two year performance of Wesfarmers Ltd. It has been clearly state that gross profit margin is increased from 1.30%. ROCE of the company is getting sufficient amount of return as 3.31%.
Over the last few year, Wesfarmers has communicated its progress in sustainability by producing an annual report. Under which they are committed to create interest for shareholders, customers and other employees those are working with them. Long term value formulation is only possible if they are playing a vital role in serving the society (Mosse, 2011).
Farm animal welfare:
Coles brand animal welfare policies is focused on reducing number of products sources from close confinement system. The fresh eggs have been cage free in 2013 and Coles brand fresh pork has been snow stall in 2014. All coles pork, ham and bacon are sources from farms that can only use gestation stalls for maximum time of 24 hours. All branded poultry has been entirely sourced from RSPCA approved farm. Such issues can reflect Wesfarmers important social and environmental influences the decision made by shareholders. It covers various aspects such as:
Safety: They are responsible for delivering a relentless focus on employee’s performance. They are using TRIFR (Total recordable injury frequency rate) and lost time injury frequency rate. This year rate of TRIFR is less with 33.6 to 28.3 percent.
Ethical sourcing and human rights: Under this, ethical sourcing training needs are provided to the third parties, suppliers and factories in order to ensure standards expected by various division.
Environment analysis: They target to protect their surrounding through reducing the emission intensity of our businesses. It will be easy to improve their resilience to climate modification. 16% of total reduction in greenhouse gas emission intensity in last five years.
Density rate: They are always tried to strive to develop an inclusive work environment. It can be enhance to 27% to promote diversity at workplace with total number of 4,231 employees working in order to determine it primary indigenous.
Workplace relation: It has been seen that more than 83 per cent of total workforce is working by collective contracts. Wesfarmers are tried to negotiate either individually or collectively without engagement of outside parties (Walker and Walker, 2011). The fair work commission is reducing to approve a new venture bargaining agreement which is covering all Coles store team member.
(Source: Financial performances, 2017)
The above graph is representing community contribution rate those are indirect or directly related with the company. The Indirect contribution in 2017 is about 59.3 which is higher as compare to previous year. Whereas, direct contribution rate is 72.9 % in 2017 as compared to last year.
From the above project report, it has been concluded that accounting concept is one of the crucial tools by which managers can analyse their financial statements. It covers various financial ratios to determine the exact performance of company. The sustainability report is also effective since last year.
Books and Journals:
Edmonds, T. P. & et. al. (2013). Fundamental financial accounting concepts. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Flamholtz, E. G. (2012). Human resource accounting: Advances in concepts, methods and applications. Springer Science & Business Media.
Lunenburg, F. C. & Ornstein, A. C. (2011). Educational administration: Concepts and practices. Cengage Learning.
Mosse, D. (Ed.). (2011). Adventures in Aidland: The anthropology of professionals in international development (Vol. 6). Berghahn Books.
Walker, J. R. & Walker, J. T. (2011). Tourism concepts and practices. Pearson Education India.
What is the Gross Profit Margin?. 2016. [Online] Available through: <https://www.thebalance.com/what-is-the-gross-profit-margin-393201>.
Financial performances. 2017. [Online] Available through: <http://financials.morningstar.com/ratios/r.html?t=WES®ion=aus&culture=en-US>.
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