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Accessible Design Assignment Sample

Introduction

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The bus stop is the first point or aspect related to the way of communication between passengers and bus services. The frequency of buses, location & design directly affects the transit system performance as well as the satisfaction level of the passengers. Currently, very few transit agencies have extensive reference materials to assist with the bus's close location and design. As a recognition of the importance regarding the bus stop location and design, there are Transit Cooperative Research Program or TCRP has sponsored different research programs for developing the guidelines regarding the identification as well as the design of bus stops at several locations in the United Kingdom-based on London in an effective operating environment. These guidelines may help transit agencies, local governments, and others for identifying the bus stops for further improvement or new designs. Offering convenient operation for bus operators, convenient as well as patrons can provide a smooth flow of traffic.

Survey of Bus Stops

In this project, a review of the literature, as well as existing transit agency manuals, will be provided in terms of state-of-the-practice information. In further a mail-out survey was conducted regarding the transit agencies and states as all of the practices are not included in the published documents (Ashwin et al. 2020). The main aim of this project is to determine an effective theoretical consideration to develop and improvement of an existing bus stop. 

Figure 1: Considerations for Locations of Bus Stop

(Source: tfl.gov.uk, 2021)

Different objectives can be followed which include the visits of sites, evaluation of bus stop locations, evaluation of existing resided stops, replacement of shelters of new shelter making. In this regard, it has chosen a new location between the post code area of DY4 8RY. 

Figure 2: Photograph of Bus Stop (1)

(Source: Self-Captured)

Route number 42, 229 will start from the Dudley bus station and ends at the Bilston bus station north southbound route. 

Figure 3: Photograph of Bus Stop (2)

(Source: Self-Captured)

As there are 3 to 4 bus stops that exist at present in Birmingham near Dudley it has taken an initiative in terms of increasing the bus stops for providing the travel experience to the passengers.

Figure 4: Photograph of Bus Stop (3)

(Source: Self-Captured)

Proposed Drawing for Improvement

The relationship of vehicle traffic with sidewalks and buildings is a point that should be given special attention during the design of a bus stop or station. It is because which interacts with the environment determines whether it is an effective access point for transit systems. 

Figure 5: Bus Route Time Table

(Source: Self-Captured)

In this regard, different elements should be included like trees, seats, and shelters for a more pleasant experience among the passengers and to protect them from rain (Huo et al. 2018). An effective design can reduce the travel time and increase confidence in the transit system.  Only the bus stops are capable of reducing delays for other traffic by stopping the flow of traffic in a single lane. It also provides the opportunity for creating a safe place where passengers can board the bus in more suitability. 

Figure 6: Concept of Bus Shelter

(Source: google.com, 2021)

In this regard, only bus-lane stops are capable of reducing the delays for other traffic flow in a single lane. It also provides the opportunity for creating a safe place where the passengers can take the bus at a single point of pavement without affecting the flow of pedestrians (Zhang et al. 2020). In this regard, some design elements can be proposed that helps passengers for achieving a proper experience including considerations of stops which will be close to areas regarding constant activity, shelters and stands as waiting and human-sized illumination spaces, in other words, light fixtures can be designed for people. A sidewalk with proper electrification and a digital screen for arrival and departure can be mounted (ieee.org, 2018).

Bus Shelters

There is the presence of standardized shelters which is capable of accommodating different site requirements as well as volumes of different passengers. Typically, a shelter for clear visibility is built through clear side panels. Relies on the actual demand as well as the frequency of the services the bus shelter can be designed by proper seating arrangements. The decision will be based on system-wide policy among transit agencies. 

Figure 7: Shelter for Rigid Buses

(Source: tfl.gov.uk, 2021)

It is considered that there are around 30 boardings per day for which the specific location has been chosen. Also, there are major requirements of the other criteria for evaluating the potential like several transit stops, the actual number of physical disabilities in the area, proximity to major centres of activity, frequency of buses, availability of spaces for constructing shelters, and also waiting for areas. 

Figure 8: No Shelter at Bus Stop 

(Source: Self-Captured)

Each of these items may or may not be prioritized based on the policy. System equity along with decisions for installation can be made due to the availability of actual funds.

Figure 9: Shelter for Articulated Buses

(Source: tfl.gov.uk, 2021)

Seating

Figure 10: No Seating Arrangement at Bus Stop 

(Source: Self-Captured)

To design as well as installation of the seating arrangement will be based on different aspects:

  • Availability of funding as well as priorities regarding regional and local demands.

  • The presence of the seats and coordination with adjacent urban furniture.

  • Seats can be made up of non-slip materials which will be strong as well as shock-resistant and very easy to clean in different atmospheric conditions.

Figure 11: Dimensions for Passenger Waiting Area (Centre of Footway)

(Source: tfl.gov.uk, 2021)

  • The possibility regarding sleeping for passengers will not be provided.

  • The actual width of the seats should be 550 to 650 mm with a minimum length of 1200mm. The minimum height of the backrest will be around 450 mm and it will be installed with a maximum vertical distance of 450mm from the base (Soto et al. 2017). The hand support will be around 200mm in height.

Figure 12: Dimensions for Passenger Waiting Area (Back to Kerb)

(Source: tfl.gov.uk, 2021)

  • The seats will be able to tolerate around 150kg weight.

  • There should be at least 850 mm free space for disabled people between seats and other furniture.

  • The minimum distance should be around 600 mm for the bench and from the back cub.

Figure 13: Dimensions for Passenger Waiting Area (Back to Footway)

(Source: tfl.gov.uk, 2021)

Electric Wiring 

The lighting is capable of influencing the bus patrons' perceptions regarding safety as well as security at a bus stop and it can be accessed through non-bus sponsored. An effective light will be considered in terms of enhancing the comfort for waiting passengers where security weak lighting is capable of encouraging convenient use, especially through non-living patrons hours later. Patrons can come in the climates as well as lighting is very effective for the winter season (Zhu et al. 2017). On the other hand, the Illumination needs are often considered as principle regarding independent transit agencies. 

Figure 14: Lack of Electronic Digital Board

(Source: Self-Captured)

Their lights should be provided 2 to 5-foot candles can be provided based on general recommendations. In this regard, it will be considered that the cost, as well as the availability of electricity, influences the actual decision for installing the lighting properly at the proposed bus stop. It can be said that while installing direct lighting bus stops the fixtures should be vandal proof and they can be maintained easily.

Construction of Bus Boarders

The borders of the bus are capable of providing based on plane carriageway actions where the specifications of the bus boards can be based on the following sections:

  • In this design process, a full-width border should be sufficiently projected for avoiding the bus run parking.

Figure 15: Poor Condition Bus Boarder

(Source: Self-Captured)

  • It must be at least 2.2 meters and a minimum of 2.62 meters where buses are stopping. It will depend on the length of the types of vehicles that can serve the stop in addition to the frequency of buses.

Figure 16: Border Design for Rigid Buses

(Source: https://nacto.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/TfL-accessibile-bus-stop-design-guidance.pdf)

  • The actual length of kerbside spaces is needed and it can be reduced by providing a shelter that is opened towards the kerbs based on the present footway.

Figure 17: Bus Boarders

(Source: Given)

Specification of Kerb

To Improve the existing bus-stop the actual height of the curb should be around 160 to 180 mm which can allow future road resurfacing. For building up the new bus borders the consideration should be provided for higher kerbs in terms of decreasing the step heights as well as reduction of gradient regarding ramp proposed for wheelchair access (Arêas et al. 2021). It can improve the access related to the passengers that include disabled people also. The form of the curb is also vital where it is sometimes difficult for the driver of buses to position their vehicles close to the kerbs with traditional design. The angle of the kerb should be 90 degrees with smooth angular edges which are also effective for the wheels and it will not cause any type of damage to the vehicles (diva-portal.org, 2020).

Figures 18: Details of Kerbs

(Source: https://nacto.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/TfL-accessibile-bus-stop-design-guidance.pdf)

Layby Specification 

Ramps Specification 

Lining & Build Out Specification 

Provision of Letter Box 

Post & Signs Plate Specification 

Real-Time Specifications 

Electrical Work of Bus Stop 

Conclusion 

Reference List

Journals

Arêas, L.C.M., Santiago, Y.D.D., de Oliveira, B.F., Calil Jr, C. and Gonçalves, D., PROJETO DE PONTO DE ÔNIBUS MODULAR EM MADEIRA PERFILADA ROLIÇA DE REFLORESTAMENTO MODULAR BUS STOP DESIGN IN ROUND PROFILED TIMBER FOR REFORESTATION.

Ashwin, M., Mounika, V., Kommineni, M. and Swetha, K., 2020. Secure design for smart bus shelter using renewable energy. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7(1), pp.387-394.

Huo, Y., Li, W., Zhao, J. and Zhu, S., 2018. Modelling bus delay at bus stop. Transport, 33(1), pp.12-21.

Soto, G., Larrain, H. and Muñoz, J.C., 2017. A new solution framework for the limited-stop bus service design problem. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, 105, pp.67-85.

Zhang, Y., Su, R. and Zhang, Y., 2020, July. A dynamic optimization model for bus schedule design to mitigate the passenger waiting time by dispatching the bus platoon. In 2020 American Control Conference (ACC) (pp. 4096-4101). IEEE.

Zhu, Z., Guo, X., Chen, H., Zeng, J. and Wu, J., 2017. OPTIMIZATION OF URBAN MINI-BUS STOP SPACING: A CASE STUDY OF SHANGHAI (CHINA). Tehnicki vjesnik/Technical Gazette, 24(3).

Online Articles

ieee.org, 2018, Design of Intelligent Bus Positioning Based on

Internet of Things for Smart Campus, Available at: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=8482443 [Accessed on 02.07.2021]

diva-portal.org, 2020, diva-portal.org, Available at: https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1484176/FULLTEXT01.pdf [Accessed on 02.07.2021]

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