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5200 BEUG Construction Technology Superstructure Assignment Sample
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5200 BEUG Construction Technology Superstructure Assignment Sample

5200 BEUG construction technology superstructure assignment

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Assessment Task

Introduction and Methods

Safety Measures

Explain the main areas of the creation of the precast portal frame for a large leisure center.

In building construction works, the pre-cast concrete single portal frame is used many times. The precast portal frame has a maximum of 10ft header height from the foundation top points to the header top points. In a large leisure center, the portal frame is used with the pinned-based. It is the fully rigid frame portal that the crane mainly uses (Anelli, 2019.). This form of portal frame is both economical and functional. In the plane stability and connection to the top and the beam to the column for the first situation. To build the construction work the portal frame was used to flattest slopes with weather tightness. The common slope is around 6° but a low slope of around 1° has been used. The portal frame is mainly used in the I section building works and connections as illustrated. The length of the portal frame is approx 10% of all over the span and can be formatted to the welded plate or cut from the rolled section. The frame ability on the web thickness, section depth results, and flange dimensions in the efficiency of the high materials. This portal frame actually benefited from the economic reduction of the plane stiffness of deep sections. It is particularly up to 40m spans and where for permits internal planning then the multi-bay arrangements of 20-30m span.

In the construction works the pre-cast frame model is very usable in large leisure center building works. But use the time to measure safety because the steel portal frame is poor fire resistance. This portal frame creates the temperature effects for the construction workers. Thus the portal frame is a longer span frame for this reason to be used vary properly way with crane format and also used apron and helmet.

The explanation has been stated regarding the facts of fixing the composite roof panels.

In construction work, composite roof panels are used very well. The composite slab and roof consist of the profile of steel decking and in-situ reinforcement concrete topping. When the concrete has claimed strength than the two materials act together compositely. These composite roof planes are mainly used the industrial, commercial, and leisure buildings and are also used the steel-framed building works (Baghaee, et al, 2019). To fix the composite roof panels in must be used the crane system and an excess of the 400 square meters of decking is installed by one time in one day and it depends on the size shape and the building footprint. 

To settings, the composite roof panels must maintain the safety of weight saving, transport factors well-saving, structural stability, shallower constructions, and service of the easy installations.

Explanation on the matter of constructing the ground supported floor and forming the cladding using masonry cavity walls.

The cladding primary section actually provides shade, an attractive appearance, and shelter. The member of the frame and both the secondary and primary care support the service of cladding. Actually, the cladding used in masonry creativity walls for the different ways to maintain the weather tight, and provide insulation and durability(Cao, et a, 2022). Cladding formed the sheets of metal which emerged as the most popular thing to introduce the weather tightness. So, in every construction works to maintain the weather badness they are mostly used the cladding system.

To install the cladding system is not an easy job but it is necessary. Thus it is the fire spread perspective so to n\be used the fire resist apron and helmet, mineral wool, cement board, and concrete panels, etc. 



Explanation of main areas of the creation of the pre-cast portal frame for a large leisure center.


Steel construction is one of the widely known methods for the construction of a single-story building. The primary reason behind this is this structure is a relatively light, long-span, durable structure in steel that is comfortable to pitch safely and fast. The portal framework with pinned bases is a most useful arrangement if there is no crane to be supported. Portal frames are quite specific and expand up to 40m and it has been used for frames up to 75m. 


The frameworks are constructed in Section-I and the haunch length should be approximately 10%.

Safety measures

Steel frame has poor fire resistance, that's why the use of the apron and helmet is mandatory.

work method

The steel framework is mainly used in the construction of leisure center buildings like stadiums. With lattice beam ridge and cladding are made for the substitution of a crane.


In the creation process of a single-story building the precautions and instructions like scale, drawing methods, accurate measurements, and frame cutting are supervised by the company's employees and supervisors. 



Explanation has been stated regarding the facts of fixing the composite roof panels.


A huge range of roofs that are clearly larger in the span is to be erected for the single-storied buildings for the industrial purposes but the fact of fixing the panels present in the roofs needed proper scenario and divisional structures which will help to make proper implementation, for the stability and strength.


For the preparation profiling through decking and concrete topping on the steel acts strongly to bind them

Safety measures

Safety to be taken from the sides of falling materials, weather conditions, and also electrical hazards.

work method

The methods are fully adhered, ballasted, mechanical attachments, electromagnetic induction welding, etc.


For functional supervision; scaling, drawing methods, and accurate measurements with frame cutting are needed to be supervised.



Explanation on the matter of constructing the ground-supported floor and forming the cladding using masonry cavity walls.


Masonry cavity walls are being held as the subject matter for the implementation of cladding and the procedures for the ground supporting floors.


There are a few preparatory sections that are to be executed on the basis of the walls and cladding.

Safety measures

Measures are to be taken from the parts of joints, lintels, damp-proof, etc.

work method

Methods include the mortar joints’ filling, wall tiles pacing, flashing, etc.


For supervising the working scenarios, supervision is to be done on the measurements, drawing, and the estimations' accuracy.

Question 2.

  1. In construction work for the first storied building the RC foundation is the main part of the build of any building. Because without a foundation the building can not be built anyway. So, to build the RC foundation the first part is the BFS defines the brick flat soling after that part has been done PCC defines the step of plain cement concrete then the column structure to build with the bar bending structure which is maintained by the bar bending schedule(Codina, et al, 2020). According to the drawing the structure is drawn with the 150 spacing of the main bar and the ratio is maintained at 1:5:7.

Figure 1: The column to RC foundation

(Source: Self-created )

  1. &c) The connection of the portal rafter to column

Figure 2: The connection of the portal rafter to column and The roof panel fixing to the purlins.

(Source: Self-created )


Figure 3: Connection of two rafters at the apex

(Source: Self-created )

Question 3.

According to Robertson et al, 2012 the precast concrete system provides potential advantages to the onsite casting of construction projects in the regions. The production of precast concrete is performed on ground-level projects in the industry. The casting process can be maximized or minimized by the pre-cast concrete on the project site. With a great production control system, the precast concrete can be generated for the industry to evaluate the construction process with great potential. The precast concrete process helps the construction engineers to understand the material and its usability for the construction project in the industry. The construction organizations in the nations provoke the managing system to use the precast concrete for the project as the primary material.

According to Workeluel, et al. 2022 the structural concrete can be cast and cured by the machinery of the construction project system. With the process of precast concrete for the housing project, the time can be increased by 50% and the waste reduced by 70%. Also, the project cost can be saved up to 10% by the usage of the forecast concrete for the construction sites. The systematic design and handling process of the construction model can be accessed by the substantial usage of the precast concrete for the industry . The constantly growing housing demand in the regions creates several advantages of the precast concrete process for the construction industry worldwide.

According to Sekhar, et al. 2021 the valued engineering of the construction projects comes with some innovative generated processes which define the usability and the quality of the construction of the industry. These composite roof planes are mainly used in industrial, commercial, and leisure buildings and are also used in steel-framed building works. The industrial mechanism for the construction building process in the industry helps the engineering companies to renovate the whole structure of the formation with time. With the advanced technological implication in the system, the construction mechanism uses precast concrete for quality enhancement in the industry.

According to Sangoju, et al. 2020 assembly mechanism of the precast concrete is precisely the structural form of the on-site project for the industry. The chloride-induced corrosion and carbonation-induced corrosion are involved in the basic corrosion mechanism in the precast concrete mechanism. The structural orientation program and the activity of the construction process enable the pure line connection with the model that is to be executed for the industrial process.

Question 4.

The framework is the initial stage for any superstructure; without this building, any other element for the structure is not possible. The building has various types of framework methods, from single steroid to the third storied building, wooden structures are mainly used for leisure center buildings. The floor is also known as a finished flat surface of a building or a room where someone walks. Any floor is mainly made of two components: Subfloor and Floor cover. The main purpose of the subfloor is to support the levied loads coming over it. This component conveys strength and stability to the structure of the floor (Cugat, et al, 2020). A floor cover or flooring is a finished floor according to the structure with the help of “tiles”, “granite”, “marbles”, “concrete”, etc. floor is not a single part of a superstructure it also comes with column, beam, wall, lintels, stair, slab, roof and parapet. The column is a standing structural component that bears compressive loads. The column is one of the most crucial structural elements in any building, a failure of any structure is primarily caused by any loopholes in the column. The column helps to transfer loads from the beam to the foundation. The column helps the beam, which is a horizontal structural component with a detailed depth and width varying with a span. The loads arriving on the beams are transferred to the beam endpoint where it is connected (Gravesen, and Ringskou, 2018). After that, it is transferred to the columns or the supporting beams in structural components. Including all these elements walls can be also considered as one of the major elements in the superstructure. Walls are flat surfaces like floors but in a vertical position which are made in continuance that helps to divide the confined space. Walls can be constructed with masonry or concrete. Walls help the beam slab and the roofs in load distribution. In any superstructure windows and doors are mandatory which makes lintels a needed process. Lintels are one type of category for beam structures that are constructed over all the wall openings like windows and doors(Martinez, 2019). This helps the wooden structure of any wall openings in load distribution. The length of the width and the wall need to be equal and that ends in the masonry wall. It doesn't matter if the building is single-storied or multi-storied, stairs are mandatory.

Question 5.


Figure 4: The Superstructure of the Foundation

(Source: Self-created)

  1. b)

Figure 5: Upper floor structure to R.C.C

(Source: Self-crated)


Figure 6: Insulated wall panel structure connects to superstructure

(Source: Self-created)

Question 6.

The steel frame comprising the metallic deck and floors are required while constructing a superstructure. The steel frame is used in the construction of the superstructure. An alternative to the steel frame, the wooden frame can also be used in the construction of the superstructure. In case the wooden frame is used in the construction of the superstructure, the cost of the construction would have decreased (Nour Eldin, et al, 2020). The steel frame relies on the increase in the cost. But while constructing the frame, if the wooden bar is curved it would impose challenges on the construction and may result in the breakdown of the construction. Thus, the steel frames are used as the alternative to the wooden frames in the construction of the superstructure. The durability of the steel is much higher than that of the wooden frame and thus steel frames are used largely within the superstructures. The buildability of the steel frames is much higher than the wooden frames as the steel can bear more weight than timber and the construction would remain perfect and would not result in any breakdown due to the weight. The weight of the steel frame would be 30 to 50 percent less than that of the wooden frame and is significantly more durable. The usage of the steel frame instead of the wooden frame deals with providing more stability and strength to the building than the usage of the wooden frame (Pang, et al, 2020). Thus, the quality of the construction may hamper due to the breakdown of the wooden structure, that is why, in the construction of the superstructure, steel frames are used in order to maintain the quality of the construction.

The precast concrete structure of the floor and wall panel are required in the construction of the superstructure. As an alternative to the precast concrete structure, the postcast concrete structure could also be used in the construction of the superstructure. The postcast concrete structure is versatile in comparison to the precast concrete structure. The postcast concrete structure is more cost-effective in nature than that of the precast and deals with less time as it is constructed at the site of construction. The buildability of the postcast concrete structure is higher than the precast structures, as the postcast structures are constructed at the site and it is exact to the measurements taken by the constructor. The quality of the postcast structure is much higher than that of the precast concrete structure as the podcast structure is hauled in the location of the site and the precast concrete structure is constructed somewhere else. Thus, the durability and the quality of the podcast concrete structure are higher than the postcast concrete structure. This would enhance the longevity and sustainability of the postcast structure and would remain for a long time and would not face any breakdown in the structure.

The wooden structure of the panels is used while constructing a superstructure. The timber structure of the panel is used in the construction of the superstructure. An alternative to the timber panel, the steel structure of the panel can also be used in the construction of the superstructure. In case the timber panel is used in the construction of the superstructure, the cost of the construction would have decreased (Robertson, et al, 2021). The steel panel relies on the increase in the cost. But while constructing the frame, the timber panel may be curved in nature and may impose challenges on the construction, and may result in the breakdown of the construction. Thus, the steel panels are used as the alternative to the timber panels in the construction of the superstructure. The durability of the steel is much higher than that of the timber panel and thus steel panels are used largely within the superstructures. The buildability of the steel panels is higher than the timber panels as the steel can bear more weight than timber and the construction would remain perfect and would not result in any breakdown due to the weight (Sabastony, and Koespiadi, 2021). The timber panels are much heavier than the steel panels and thus the steel panels are constructed. Moreover, the usage of steel in the construction of the panels would result in an increase in sustainability, and thus, the construction would last for a longer time.

Reference list


Anelli, R., 2019. Bauhaus and Lina Bo Bardi: from the modern factory to the Pompeia leisure center. docomomo journal, (61), pp.42-49.

Baghaee, S., Aram, F., Daudén, F.L. and Denzin, P., 2019. The Modern Retail Center: A Study on the New Role of Retails Centers as a Place for Spending Leisure Time.

Cao, B., Xie, M., Zhu, L., Cao, W., Huang, B., Du, Y., Wang, J., Yang, Y. and Wang, C., 2022. Axial compression behavior of precast circular semi-continuous concrete-filled steel tube columns. Advances in Mechanical Engineering14(6), p.16878132221107471.

Codina, N., Pestana, J.V. and Stebbins, R.A., 2020. Fitness training as a body-centered hobby: The serious leisure perspective for explaining exercise practice. Revista de Psicología del Deporte (Journal of Sport Psychology)29(2), pp.73-81.

Cugat, V., Cavalaro, S.H.P., Bairán, J.M. and de la Fuente, A., 2020. Safety format for the flexural design of tunnel fibre reinforced concrete precast segmental linings. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology103, p.103500.

Gravesen, D.T. and Ringskou, L., 2018. On the move from pedagogy to timeagogy? Or how time constitutes the work of pedagogues in the Danish Primary School and Leisure-time Center. IJREE–International Journal for Research on Extended Education5(2), pp.9-10.

Martinez, C., 2019. Promoting critical digital literacy in the leisure-time center: Views and practices among Swedish leisure-time teachers. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy14(3-04), pp.134-146.

Nour Eldin, M., Naeem, A. and Kim, J., 2020. Seismic retrofit of a structure using self-centring precast concrete frames with enlarged beam ends. Magazine of Concrete Research72(22), pp.1155-1170.

Pang, R., Zhang, Y., Dang, L., Zhang, L. and Liang, S., 2020. Experimental and numerical investigation on the vertical bearing behavior of discrete connected new-type precast reinforced concrete floor system. Advances in Structural Engineering23(11), pp.2276-2291.


Robertson, A.B., Lam, F.C. and Cole, R.J., 2012. A comparative cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of mid-rise office building construction alternatives: Laminated timber or reinforced concrete. Buildings2(3), pp.245-270.

Sabastony, M. and Koespiadi, K., 2021. Precast Work Planning Tribun Jakarta International Stadium. ADRI International Journal of Civil Engineering6(2), pp.63-68.

Tang, E.P., Chan, R.Y. and Tai, S.H., 2018. Emotional influences of environmental cues on Chinese consumers in a leisure service setting. In Asian Dimensions of Services Marketing (pp. 67-87). Routledge.

Vieira Júnior, J.A.H., Facini, K.R., Lusby, C. and Uvinha, R.R., 2020. Leisure as a social transformation in the community: the experience of the World Leisure Organization Field School in São Paulo, Brazil. World Leisure Journal62(3), pp.182-199.

Xinsheng, L., Qizhen, Z., Zhenhua, L., Lufang, W., Yungang, Y. and Gang, C., 2020. The Research of BIM in the Design Stage of Precast Concrete Structures. Engineering and Applied Sciences5(1).

Yang, S. and Zheng, L., 2019, May. Finite Element Analysis of the Joint Surface of Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Frame Column and Precast Shear Wall. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 267, No. 2, p. 022026). IOP Publishing.

Zairova, F., 2020. MODERN ARCHITECTURE SOLUTIONS FOR BUILDINGS OF LEISURE CENTERSIN FOREIGNPRACTICES. Problems of Architecture and Construction2(4), pp.23-25.

Zritneva, E., Mikhaylov, A., Ivashova, V. and Kuznetsova, L., 2019, June. Satisfaction of Residents of the Stavropol Region with Services of Cultural and Leisure Establishments as an Indicator of the Quality of Life of the Population. In 2nd International Conference on Economy, Management and Entrepreneurship (ICOEME 2019) (pp. 370-373). Atlantis Press.

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